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■ ' 



,^ a tfie CoCo Communis 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

May 1993 Vol, XIINo. 10 Canada $4.95 U.S. $3.95 



The Time Has 




Old Dog Tray's ever faithful ; 

Grief cannot drive him away; 

He is gentle, he is kind. 

I'll never, never find 

A better friend than Old Dog Tray. 



Stephen Foster was writing about his beloved dog, Tray, who died while trying 
to rescue someone from a burning house. I'm writing about the rainbow. 
THE RAINBOW is the second-oldest continuously published computer 
magazine in the world. It is the longest-lived computer-specific magazine in 
existence. But more important than that, it is the best-loved computer maga- 
zine the world has ever known. 

For 154 consecutive months, from July of 1981 until now, the rainbow created a 
community of computer users absolutely unmatched in the brief history of computers. In 
all, three-quarters of a million people welcomed it into their homes every month. It 
engendered program- writing contests, its own computer show, more than a dozen books, 
and a nickname for its subject that even the manufacturer adopted. It was probably the only 
magazine in existence that even had a mascot. 

As THE RAINBOW grew from four dot-matrix-printed pages to nearly 400 typeset pages 
with full -color covers, illustrations and advertisements, it came to personify not just the 
spirit and vigor of the Tandy Color Computer but the vitality of a new age of technology 
— an age that brought the ultimate technology, a computer, into the hands of normal, 
everyday people. It started hundreds of businesses, most of them of the kitchen-table 
variety, and made it possible for us "just folks" to make a buck doing something that was 
fun and exciting. 

the rainbow brought some 350,000 people to its 20 RAlNBOWfests; it attracted more 
than 1 000 entries for its "CoCo Gallery " monthly contest column; it gave publicity to some 
300 Color Computer clubs; and it crashed the entire Delphi Information Service numerous 
times with floods of CoCo users all trying to log on at the same time. 

I know of at least two marriages that were the direct result of people ' s meeting through 
the rainbow — the ceremony for one of which was almost held at a RAiNBOWfest until 
the bride's parents objected strongly. Subscribers came from every continent on the 
planet, even Antarctica, and it was once rumored (though I was never able to get NASA 
to confirm this) that one issue even went into Earth orbit with an astronaut. 

We mailed THE RAINBOW to people who lived on boats, to servicemen and women in 
the Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force (and those of several other countries), and to at 
least one CIA spy who used a mail drop for receiving his copy . We blasted throu gh the Iron 
Curtain when it still existed and crossed the Berlin Wall as well. THE RAINBOW penetrated 
the Bamboo Curtain too. At one point or another we sought out local residents who were 
fluent in Arabic and Hebrew, Russian and Japanese to translate letters for us. Of course 
we got our share of French (from France as well as Quebec), Spanish, German and Italian 
letters too. We had subscribers from the holy cities of Jerusalem, Rome and Mecca. We 
once had a grandfather who bought 10 subscriptions, one for each of his grandchildren. 
We even licensed a special edition of THE RAINBOW in Australia; it was printed there to 
save the Aussies postage and was very successful. 



But most of all, the story of THE RAINBOW is the story of friendship. Never was it 
unusual to see a group of 20 or 30 people still huddled together at 3 a.m. during a 
RAiNBOWfest. We always had more pen-pal requests than we could ever print. And there 
were the stories of people who drove 100 miles to attend a CoCo club meeting or just to 
help someone install a disk drive when he or she couldn't figure out how to do it alone. 

When, nearly five years ago, Tandy told us it would no longer manufacture the Color 
Computer, I knew this time would someday arrive. We have strived mightily to keep the 
RAINBOW alive. But for the past two years, it has lost money . Without a new computer on 
which to build our subscription base, we never had any real hope of turning THE RAINBOW 
around. Yet out of a sentimentality that probably has no part in the business world, we 
continued publishing, looking for economies where we could. THERAINBOW has survived 
this long simply because we were willing to spend profits from our other Tandy magazine, 
PCM, to sustain it. Today, with its subscription base ever- shrinking, even our in-place 
economies are insufficient to keep THE RAINBOW going. Like Old Dog Tray, the ever- 
faithful RAINBOW ceases to exist with this issue. 

I love this dear magazine that was bom so small, grew so large, and has become so small 
again. I am sure many of you few thousand who are still with us do as well. I've found, 
in my many discussions with other editors and publishers, that none of them quite believes 
the devotion and affection the CoCo Community lavished on a mere magazine — -by all 
of us here, and especially by all of you. 

We will fulfill your subscriptions to the RAINBOW with subscriptions to PCM. Those of 
you with RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK subscriptions will receive PCM ON DISK 
subscriptions. Not incidentally, you will find many of your old friends from THE RAINBOW 
are subscribers to PCM. It was founded on and continues to follow the same philosophy that 
made the rainbow so successful. Indeed I cannot count the number of people who, as 
they moved from the CoCo to the PC, have written to me saying that in PCM they were 
pleasedtofind for their new computers the same support and enthusiasm to which they had 
become accustomed in THERAINBOW. 

You will note that we have special advertisements in this final issue for THERAINBOW 
Bookshelf, for back issues of the rainbow itself, for RAINBOW binders, and for back 
issues of rainbow ontape and RAINBOW ON disk. Some are in short supply , and of course 
we won't be reprinting or duplicating any of them. If you would like to fill out your 
collection of any of these items, please write or call us as soon as possible. 

There is little left to say, my friends. How to close the book? How to end these years? 
Life, I suppose, is merely one goodbye after another — and now it is time to for us to say 
goodbye to you. 

To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven: 
A time to be born and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which 
is planted; 

A time to weep . . . 

Weep not for THE RAINBOW. It forged a community of spirit. A commonness of 
purpose. A wonderful adventure. It was the instigator of lasting friendships. It touched us 
all, and we were all a part of it. 

It was the greatest. 

— Lonnie Falk 



May 1993 



wt\ mm 



THE RAINBOW 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor 

Cray Augsburg 
Associate Editor 

Sue Fomby 
Submission/Reviews Editor 

Julie Hutchinson 
Technical Editor 

Greg Law 
Technical Assistant 

Ed Filers 
Contributing Editors 

Martin Goodman, M.D., 

Tim Kientzle, Eddie Kuns 
Consulting Editor 

Laura Falk 
Art Director 

O'Neil Arnold 
Designers 

Sharon Adams, Heidi Nelson 
Editorial Director 

John Crawley 



Falsoft, Inc. 
President 

Lawrence C. Falk 
General Manager 

Judi Hutchinson 
Asst. General Manager for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Asst. General Manager for 

Administration 

Tim Whelan 
Administrative Asst. to the 

Publisher 

Ellen Patterson 

Bookkeeper/Dealer Accounts 

Debra Wilson 
Customer Service Representative 

Lauren Yates 
Business Assistants 

Traci Christopher 

Shannon Yoffe 
Corporate Business Technical Dir. 

Calvin Shields 
Chief of Building Security & Maint. 

Lawrence Johnson 

Advertising: 

Western Sales Director 

Ira Barsky (312) 587-1818 
Eastern Sales Director 

Kim Lewis (502) 228-4492 

For RAINBOW Advertising and Mar- 
keting office Information, see Page 15. 

Printed in the U.S.A 



THE RAINBOW is published every month of the year 
by FALSOFT, Ina, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. 
Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone 
(502) 228-4492. THE RAINBOW, RAINBOWfest and 
THE RAINBOW and RAINBOWfest logotypes are reg- 
istered trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Second class 
postage paid Prospect, KY and additional offices, USPS 
N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: 
Send address changes to THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Authorized as second class 
postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; GST No. R1 25434092. • 
Entire contents copyright • by FALSOFT, Inc., 1993. 
THE RAINBOW is intended for the private use and 
pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and repro- 
duction by any means is prohibited. Use of information 
herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any 
other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein 
aredistrtbuted in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any 
kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color BASIC, Extended 
Color BASIC and Program Pak are registered a trade- 
marks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to THE 
RAINBOW are $31 per year in the United States. Cana- 
dian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries 
is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin 
with next available issue. •Limited back issues are 
available. Please see notice for issues that are in print 
and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. 
currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A 
refund of 10/12ths the subscription amount after two 
issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or 
more magazines. 



Letters to 
THE i 

RAINBOW 




Are 512K Upgrades Reliable? 

Editor: 

I have a 128K C0C0 3, a Multi-Pak 
Interface (Catalog No. 26-3124) and two 
FD-500 disk drives. I also have Multi-Vue 
and DeskMate. I often hear about 512K 
upgrades breaking down. I need the extra 
memory to use these programs, but I don't 
want a dead CoCo. Do I need to upgrade the 
Multi-Pak Interface as well? 

John Black 

P.O. 2404 

Whitehouse, OH 43571 

While it is true that nothing lasts for ever, 
the 512K upgrades aren't susceptible to 
damage any more or less than any other 
component in your CoCo; you 11 probably 
experience years of trouble-free operation. 
If you are using OS-9 Level II, the 512K 
upgrade is practically required. The Multi- 
Pak Interface must be upgraded before you 
use it with a CoCo 3. See "CoCo Consulta- 
tions" in this issue for Multi-Pak Interface 
upgrade information. 

Wants to Learn About RMA 

Editor: 

Where can I get information on the RMA 
assembler that comes with the Level II 
Development System? I am interested in 
seeing examples of how this assembler 
works. 

Also, I recently bought the Accounting 
Level 2 program from CoCoPRO ! and have 
been unable to get it to work. Can you give 
me any information that will help me get 
this program up and running? 

Samuel McGregor 

4213 Trough Springs Road 

Adams, TN 37010 

The manual that comes with the Devel- 
opment System/or OS-9 Level II supplies a 
couple of source code examples for the 
RMA assembler. For more comprehensive 



information, though, we recommend you 
check the databases in the Delphi OS9 Online 
SIG. 

Unfortunately we never received an evalu- 
ation copy of Accounting Level 2 from 
CoCoPRO!. Perhaps another reader who is 
familiar with the package will be able to 
offer some help. 

Dueling Printers 

Editor: 

The people at Tandy Corporation gave 
me your address in reference to questions I 
have concerning my Color Computer. I have 
a CoCo 3 with a DMP-133 printer, an FD- 
502 disk drive and a VM-4 monochrome 
monitor. 

I want to add a second printer to the 

system. Ideally I would like to be able to 

load one printer with paper and the other 

with labels, then use a switch to tell the 

system which printer I want to use. Tandy is 

no longer manufacturing this system and 

does not have any replacement printer stock. 

Orval Bogart 

710 S. Fitch Mountain Road, #102 

Healdsburg, CA 95448 

Just about any printer can be used with 
the CoCo, though no manufacturers cur- 
rently produce a printer with a serial port 
for the CoCo 3. Given what you want to 
accomplish, purchase a parallel printer 
switch (check the Jameco and JDR 
Microdevices ads in current electronics 
magazines for availability). Then contact 
Owl-Ware (see the ad in this issue) to obtain 
a serial/parallel converter to go between the 
CoCo and this switch. Finally, use standard 
parallel cables to connect the two printers to 
the switch. 

BASIC09 Typos Corrected 

Editor: 

I am having a problem getting the sample 
program on Page 9-40 in the BASIC09 section 



Sundog Systems Discount Special 

Buy 2 or more CoCo 3 products and save 1 5% on each! 

Coupon must be mentioned at time of order to receive discount 

Offer excludes The Contras. Expires June 30, 1 993. See prices 

and ordering information elsewhere in this issue. 



Sundog Systems 

P.O. Box 766 

Manassas, VA 221 I I 

703/330-8989 



of the OS-9 Level II manual to work prop- 
erly. The new window appears, but noth- 
ing happens when I press a key; the pro- 
gram hangs at the GET #1 statement. To get 
out of the program, I have to press the 
BREAK key. And I lose the original win- 
dow in the process. Can you help? 

Burton Parke 

2567 Elderberry Drive 

Clearwater, FL 34621-2207 

There are three errors in the program 
listing provided on Page 9-40 in the BA- 
SIC09 section of the Level II manual. First, 
change the word W R I T E in the fourth line to 
UPDATE. Second, change the eighth line 
from 

GET #1. RESPONSE 



GET #PATH. RESPONSE 

The last correction is to swap the ninth and 
tenth lines, making CLOSE #PATH the next- 
to-last line in the program. 

Using DOS to Run BASIC Programs 

Editor: 

I have written a utility program in BASIC 
that combines many stand-alone machine- 
language utilities (by poking them into 
memory). I call this program SETUP.BAS, 
and I want to execute it using the DOS 
command when I first turn on the CoCo. 
Any information on how to use the DOS 
command in this fashion would be much 
appreciated. 

Alan Doherty 

169 White Moss Drive 

Marstons Mills, MA 02648-1082 



An explanation of the DOS command 
and how to use it to start user programs is 
included in "A Special Use for the DOS 
Command. " This article by Roger Schrag 
appears on Page 140 of the November 
1984 issue of the rainbow. 



Needs Help With BASIC09 Under 
Multi-Vue 

Editor: 

I need some help writing programs in 
BASIC09 for use with Multi-Vue. I have 
many ideas for programs I'd love to write, 
and it would help a great deal if I could 
interface them with Multi-Vue. I am most 
interested in being able to use the pull- 
down menus and such (hat Multi-Vue sup- 
ports. Can anyone out there help? 

Also, I want to purchase a DS-69B or 
Rascan video digitizer. Since no vendors 
currently carry these products, I'm willing 
to buy a used unit. Any offers? 

Shawn Langtey 

901 Flakes Ford R.D., SW 

Washington Court House, OH 43160 



Feature Program 



Add a Text-Screen 
Mouse Pointer 

By Nick Johnson 



A useful addition that makes 
just about any program more 
user-friendly is the text- 
screen mouse pointer. A 
what? A text-screen pointer 
isjustablock on the text screen. You move 
it using a mouse or joystick, and you select 
items by pressing the firebutton. This type 
of pointer is great for text-based programs 
where no graphics screens are involved. 

The 32-column screen is an excellent 
place to use the pointer; it is small enough 
to allow for complete motion all over the 
screen area. It won't work with an 80- 
column screen since the joystick port only 
allows for 64 positions. It will work with 
40-column screens, but I decided to write 
the routine here for 32 columns only, allow- 
ing it to be used on any CoCo. (But readers 
with CoCo 3's can modify the program for 
use with 40 columns.) 

The pointer routine is a subroutine that is 
meant to be accessed via a GO SUB command 
from within a larger program. To use it, set 
Variable C L to a value of through 8 (cor- 
responding to the color number of your 
choice) and use GOSU B to call the routine. As 
listed, the program contains an example of 
how this works. The routine returns when 
the mouse or joystick button is pressed. 



Then check the value of Variable G to deter- 
mine the current screen location 

The text-screen pointer can really make 
your programs shine; as a menu pointer in 
text-based programs, it can't be beat. 



Nick Johnson is 17 years old and a 
senior at Crestview High School. He began 
programming using a CoCo 1 in 1982. 
After purchasing a CoCo 3, he advanced 
quickly and now programs almost con- 
stantly. He can be contacted at 5830 Reinke 
Dr., Crestview, FL 32536-891 3. Please in- 
clude an SASE when requesting a reply. 



In this issiwp 



^Add a Mouse Pointer 

by Nick Johnson 3 

Back Issue Information 5 

CoCo Consultations 

by Marty Goodman 6 

Delphi Bureau 

by Eddie Kuns 4 

A Fond Farewell 8 

Letters to Rainbow 2 

^More Speed from BASIC 

by Nick Johnson 7 

i^Zap: CoCo 3 Arcade Action 

by Nick Bradbury 13 



1 6K ECB 



The Listing: TEXTPTR 

1 'TEXT JOYSTICK POINTER 

2 'BY NICK JOHNSON 

3 'COPYRIGHT (C) 1993 

4 'BY FALSOFT, INC. 

5 'RAINBOW MAGAZINE 

30 POKE &HA9E6.1 'FASTER JOYIN 

40 CLS 

50 GOTO 500 

60 'ENTRY CONDITIONS: 



CL=THE COLOR OF THE CURSOR. 
THIS CAN BE ANY VALUE 
FROM TO 8. 

'EXIT CONDITIONS: 

'G=THE SCREEN LOCATION OF 

' THE CURSOR. 

■ROUTINE EXITS WHEN FIRE 

'BUTTON IS PRESSED. 
150 CC=128+(CL*16-1):IF CC<128 
HEN CC-128 

160 A=JOYSTKC0):B=JOYSTK(1) 
170 E=INTCA/2):F=INT(B/4) 
180 G=F*32+E 



90 ' 

100 
110 
120 
130 
140 



190 H=PEEK(1024+G) 

200 POKE 1024+G.CC 

210 C=JOYSTK(0):D=JOYSTK(1) 

220 I-INTCC/2): J-INTCD/4) 

230 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEKC6 

5280)=254 THEN 270 

240 IF E=I AND F=J THEN 210 

250 POKE 1024+G.H 

260 GOTO160 

270 POKE 1024+G,H:RETURN 

500 CL-RND(9)-1:G0SUB 150 

510 GOTO 500 



ftAD/CAL 

ELECTRONIC^ INC 



COLOR SCHEMATIC DESIGNER V3.0 

Program for drafting schematic diagrams for electronic circuits. 

REQUIREMENTS: 

512 IC COCO 3 

1 disk drive 

Mouse with Tandy Hi-Res interface 

FEATURES: 

6400 symbol buffer, 64k text 

Postscript output (iazer printer support to disk or printer) 

Node list generation 

Supports IBM graphics, Epson FX/LX and Tandy DMP printers 

Block copy, load and save - allows generation of a library of circuits 

Block delete - for fast erasing 

64 Symbol editor built in 

Line draw functions (vert / horiz lock, link lines together, anchor to 

port on symbols or other lines) 
Variable mouse responses (resolution and speed) 
Speed improvements over U2.0 
Exit to Basic without data loss (information stored in areas unused by 

basic) 



$35.00 US or $42.00 Cnd. 

Saskatchewan residence add B% P5T 

Canadian residence add 7% GST 

Visa, Mastercard, Check or Money Order, 

Write if you would like more information 

Computer products. 



on this or future Color 



Radical Electronics Inc, 
PO BOH 1350 
Saskatoon, SK 
Canada 
S7K 3N9 



Staple 6 B«ui>IJe g 

P.O. Box 733 Maple Vailey, WA 98038 




A fond farewell to 

the Rainbow... 
Watch for our new 

ORDER DESK & TECH. ASSISTANCE (206) 432-1814 ads in UpTime! 

Native Mode for $34.95! " 

Burke & Burke's $34.95 PowerBoost kit replaces your CoCo's 6809 with a high- 
performance Hitachi HD63B09E microprocessor. PowerBoost comes with our exclusive 
"tuneup" program, which uses the HD63B09E's advanced instructions to speed up manu 
OS9 operations by an average of 40%. PowerBoost now includes software to run the 
63B09E microprocessor in Native Mode for a 10% average speed increase over previous 
versions. Our implemen- tation of Native Mode updates only the REL, BOOT, OS9P1, 
OS9P2, and CC3DISK modules; all other modules work without modification. 

2nd Edition of "The 6309 Book", $29.95 

If you write assembly language software, you'll find The 6309 Book an indispensible 
reference guide. Hie 2nd Edition describes the new addressing modes, as well as the new 
instructions, of the HD63B09E. Our S29.95 package includes the book. Native Mode 
DEBUG patches, a disassembler, and a new version of our XSM 6809/6309 assembler. 
XSM runs under OS9, but can output RS-DOS, OS9, or Motorola S-Records. XSM uses 
"FAR pointer" techniques to allow up to 64K of program symbols. NOTE: XSM DOES 
NOT INCLUDE OS9 EQUATE FILES, BUT CAN USE HEADERS PROVIDED WITH 

THE OS9 LEVEL 1 ASSEMBLER OR LEVEL 2 DEVELOPER'S KIT. 

CoCo-XT - adapts IBM MFM/RLL hard disks to CoCo 2 or 3 OS9 $69.95 
XT-ROM - allows OS9 startup from CoCo XThard disk $19.95 

THEXDER-OS9 (requires THEXDER cartridge) $29.95 

SPRING SALE! THESE TITLES $5 OFF THROUGH MAY 31: 
OS9 World Class Chess (requires CYRUS cartridge) $29.95 

Daggorpatch for RS-DOS (requires DAGGORATH cartridge) $9.95 

File System Repack - OS9 graphical disk defragmenter $29.95 

EZGEN - Fast OS9 boot file editor (RAMDisk work files) $19.95 

ZCLOCK - Continuous date / time on Level 2 OS9 windows $9.95 

WA RESIDENTS ADD 8.2% SALES TAX. MC & VISA accepted. U.S. COD's add 
S3. 75. Min. shipping $4.00 US, $5.00 to Canada. Please allow 2 weeks for delivery. 
Overnight or 2nd- day available for in-stock items. Software upgrades $5.00 each 
^w/receipt, including U.S. shipping. Many items not listed - call / write for free catalog!^ 



'<(«HH*fflHW«1Bfcv 

4 May i*93 






EDDIE KUIMS 



SIG Menus 



Over the past several months, I've cov- 
ered a number of features of the CoCo and 
OS9 Online SIGs. But how do you find out 
on your own what features are available in 
the SIGs? If your current prompt mode is 
set for menus </PROMPT=MENU) or if you 
enter a question mark (?) at either SIG's 
main prompt, you'll see the SIG menu (see 
figures 1 and 2). The fact that press ? brings 
up the current menu at any prompt is impor- 
tant to remember if you often get lost online. 

As you look over the menus shown in 
figures I and 2, you may notice similarities 
between many of the menus' options. Some 
of the common features between the CoCo 
SIG and OS9 Online are independent even 
though they operate identically. For ex- 
ample, each SIG has its own database areas 
and topics. This is also true for the An- 
nouncements and Forum areas. In fact, only 
a very few areas are shared between the 
CoCo SIG and OS9 Online. Conference is 
one such area. If you are in conference in 
one SIG, you will be able to see and talk to 
people who are in conference in the other 
SIG. Another shared feature is the "Who's 
Here" function (which has exactly the same 
effect as typing the slash-command /WHO. 
When you are in the CoCo or OS9 SIG, the 
WHO command lists all users who are cur- 



rently in either SIG. There is no way to tell 
from the "who" command in which SIG a 
specific user is working. 

Although the Conference area and the 
WHO commands do not distinguish between 
the CoCo SIG and OS9 Online, the entry 
log does. If you want to see the last time a 
specific person logged on to a specific SIG, 
you have to enter that SIG yourself and 
enter /ENT username. Keep in mind, this 
command does not report the last time the 
specified user was on Delphi. It tells you 
only the date and time that person entered 
the SIG in which you are working. 

Electronic mail (Mail) and your 
Workspace area are global. You are taken 
to the same area regardless of the Delphi 
SIG you are in before you enter either of 
these areas. 



Eddie Kuns is pursuing a doctorate in 
physics at Rutgers University. He lives in 
Aurora, Illinois, and works as a program- 
mer and researcher at Fermilah. Eddie is 
the database manager of the OS-9 Online 
SIG on Delphi andean be reached online as 
EDD1EKUNS. 



Announcements 


Topic Descriptions 


Conference 


Who's Here 


Databases (Files) 


Workspace 


Entry Log 


Help 


Forum (Messages) 


Exit 


MAIL (Electronic) 


Classifieds 


Member Directory 


0S9 Online 


Poll 


Questions & Feedback 


Set Preferences 


Rainbow Magazine Services 


Shopping Service 




Figure 1: 


The CoCo SIG Menu 



Announcements 


Topic Descriptions 


Conference 


Voting Booth 


Databases (Files) 


Who's Here 


Entry Log 


Workspace 


Forum (Messages) 


Help 


MAIL (Electronic) 


Exit 


Member Di rectory 


Classifieds 


Questions & Feedbac 


k Portal to Coco Sig 


Set Preferences 


Rainbow Services 


Figure 2: 


The OS9 Online Menu 



Delphi Support to Continue 



; While this issue of THE RAINBOW is 
the Jast to be published, we recently 
renewed a contract with Delphi for the 
continued operation of the CoCo and 
OS9 Online SIGs. Over the years, these 
SIGs have become an important meet- 
ing place for members of the CoCo Com- 
munity. Now communication through 



this medium is of even greater impor- 
tance, and we intend to continue our 
support there! If you have not already 
availed yo tirself of this serv ice,cons tder 
doing so now. You can reach Delphi by 
dialing (800) 695-4005 or (61 7 i 491- 
5393. 



DATABASE REPORT 



OS9 Online: 



General Information: 

UNIX TERMCAP CODES 
DAVGEORGE David George 

BENCHMARK 

FHOGG Frank Hogg 

ENC9: SOFTWARE ANNOUNCTMENT 
DONVAIL Don Vaillancourt 

LOCATE: SOFTWARE ANNOUNCEMENT 
JSUTEMEIER Jim Sutcmcier 

0S9CN DECEMBER NETNEWS 
OS9CN Tom Bin 

Applications (6809): 

GSHEI.L V3.2: IPATCH UPGRADE 
Shawn Driscoll 
TASK SCHEDUALER 
Jim Martin 
DIR SORT UTIL 
Jim Martin 
EXTRACT .LZH ARCHIVES 
Norman Rheaume 



ROTATING SPHERES-FLICKER 
GRAPHICSPUB Bob Montowski 



Music & Sound: 

TV SOUND FILES 
RICKMAC 



Richard McNabb 



EARTHER 

CRON ED #12: 

WOAY 

GS0RT ED #12 

WOAY 

UNLZH #7: 

COGITATR 

NEWDEL: REPLACEMENT FOR DELfETE] 

WOAY Jim Martin 

BRU 1.2: HARD DISK BACKUP 

WOAY Jim Martin 

FORMATS: BATCH DISK FORMATTER 

RICKGRAY Rick Gray 

Games & Graphics: 

THREE SCREEN SAVERS 
SIGMUND Tom Bauer 

GRAPHICAL CHRISTMAS CARD 
JOELHEGBERG Joel Hegberg 
SH0WGIFTC70: TC-70 GIF VIEWER 
THUNDERFNGRS Bruce Moore 
0SK ROGUE VB.3 
KSCALES Ken Scales 

MM-1 FLICKER ANIMATION 
GRAPHICSPUB Bob Montowski 



OSK Applications: 

REPLACE: CHANGE CHARS IN FILES 
TIMKIENTZLE Tim Kientzle 
DU: DISK USAGE 
TIMKIENTZLE Tim Kientzle 

TREE: HEIRARCHICAL DIRECTORY 
TIMKIENTZLE Tim Kientzle 
UPTIME: SYSTEM "ON" TIME 
VILLARREAL Joe M. Villarreal 

HDBACKUP 1.5:HARD DRIVE BACKUP 
MARKGRIFFITH Mark Griffith 
GHOSTSCRIPT 2 . 4: POSTSCRI PT EMULA 
JOHNREED John Wainwright 



CoCo SIG: 

Utilities & Applications: 

ALPHA-DIR UTILITY 
JASONGROSS Jason Gross 

IBM TO/FROM RSDOS UTILITY 
JES68K Jesse Newton 

6309 EDITOR/ASSEMBLER PRE- VIEW 
CHETSIMPSON Chet Simpson 

Hardware Hacking: 

PIN OUT OF 512K BOARD 
MARTYGOODM AN Marty Goodman 

Soapbox (chitchat): 

MALCOLM X: A REVIEW 
MARTYGOODM AN Marty Goodman 





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6 May 1993 



CoCo 
Consultations 




m A R T V g o a c 1AM 



• Is This MPI Upgraded? 
How can I tell if an older Multi- 
Pak Interface (Cat. No. 26-3024) 
has been upgraded with the new PAL chip? 
Francis Swygert (DSRTFOX) 
Robins AFB, Georgia 

A The PAL chip is a 20-pin socketted 
_ chip — the only socketted chip in the 
26-3024 Multi-Pak (unless other chips had 
been replaced during an earlier repair). All 
26-3024 Multi-Paks were originally sup- 
plied with a 14L4-type PAL chip, usually 
made by Monolithic Memories Inc. ("MMI" 
is usually visible as part of the logo on the 
chip). Thus, if your 26-3024 Multi-Pak has 
a 14L4 PAL chip with no special label, it 
almost certainly has not been upgraded for 
the CoCo 3. 

The original upgrade PAL supplied by 
Tandy was a Signetics PLS 1 53N chip. This 
chip usually was supplied with a small, 
brown paper dot stuck to it. If you find such 
a chip in the Multi-Pak, it is upgraded. 
Many third parties (including me) supplied 
upgrade PAL chips for the 26-3024 Multi- 
Pak. A few of those I supplied were 14L4 
chips, but I put labels on them noting that 
they were upgrade chips. The label usually 
had the word "CC3" (for CoCo 3) on it. 
Most of the upgrade PAL chips I supplied 
were 16V8 or 16V8a GAL chips, often 
made by Lattice. I put labels on all of those 
I sold to individuals or dealers. Thus, if your 
Multi-Pak has a 16V8 or 1 6V8a GAL chip 
in the socket, or for that matter any type of 
PAL other than a 1 4L4, you can be virtually 
certain it has been upgraded. By the way, to 
my kowledge there is no current commer- 
cial source for upgrade PAL chips for 26- 
3024 Multi-Pak Interface. Those who have 
PAL and GAL programmers can download 
from the Hardware Hacking database area 
of the Delphi CoCo SIG fuse-maps I posted 
for burning upgrade PAL chips, then burn 
their own. If all else fails, contact me at 
1633 Bayo Vista Ave, San Pablo, CA 
94806). 

TheCM-llandtheCoCo3 

• Can a Tandy CM-1 1 monitor be 
used with the Color Computer 3 ? 
Anthony Lee Dawson (KEYBOARDMAN) 
St. Petersburg, Florida 

A The CM- 11 is a relatively high- 
quality CGA (RGBL or 4-bit digital 
RGB) monitor. You can make a cable to go 
between it and the CoCo 3 by wiring like- 
named pins together. Using this approach, 
the CM-1 1 will display text screens and 
show a total of six colors plus black and 
white. 

The pinout for the CM-1 1 connector is 
as follows: 

1 ground 

2 ground 



3 


Red 




4 


Green 




5 


Blue 




6 

7 


Intensity 
not used 




8 
9 


Hsync 
Vsync 




The CoCo 3 video connector uses the fol- 


lowing pinout: 




1 

2 
3 


ground 
ground 
Red 




4 


Green 




5 


Blue 




8 
9 


Hsync 

Vsync 





When wiring the new cable, just ignore 
the CM- 11 'a Intensity line. Note, however, 
the cable can't be wired straight through 
because the numbering on the CM-1 l's 9- 
pin connector is different than that used on 
the CoCo 3's 10-pin dual-row connector. 
The DB-9 has pins numbered 1 through 5 in 
one row and pins numbered 6 through 9 in 
the other. The 1 0-pin CoCo 3 connector has 
all odd-numbered pins in one row and all 
even-numbered pins in the other. Hence, 
you have to solder a new cable from scratch 
— you can't simply use two standard crimp- 
on connectors. 

If you want to get true analog RGB (64 
colors) out of the CM- 1 1 when using it with 
the CoCo 3, you will need a schematic for 
the CM-1 1 and some knowledge of video 
electronics. It should then be fairly easy to 
rip out the CGA conversion circuitry and 
feed the R, G and B signals from the CoCo 
3 directly into the bases of the lowest level 
analog R, G and B video-amplifier transis- 
tors in the CM- 1 1 . But this project is not for 
the average tinkerer. 

Mixed-Up Drives 

^^k / am installing a disk drive from a 
^B^ Tandy FD-500 drive system into the 
second drive bay of an FD-502 drive sys- 
tem. I managed to change the power supply 
connector in the FD-502 case to the large 
power connector required by the FD-500 
drive. However, I discovered that the 34- 
pin edge connector is in a different area of 
the FD-500 drive than it is on the FD-502 , 
and the cable in the FD-502 case is so short 
that the spare connector wont reach over 
to mate with the FD-500 drive. Is there an 
extender cable I should use, or what? 

Bob Williams (bawi imams) 
Cedar Hill, Missouri 

A Extenders for 34-conductor disk- 
drive cables exist, but they are hard to 
find and quite expensive. By far the better 
solution would be to make a completely 
new drive cable, with connector spacing 



appropriate for your setup. Alternatively, 
you might be able to just crimp a third 
connector onto the existing FD-502 cable 
far enough from the end that it would allow 
you to connect both drives. Female 34-pin, 
crimp-on edge connectors are inexpensive 
and widely available at electronics stores 
(including Radio Shack). 

When mixing an FD-502 drive with an- 
other drive, you may have to experiment 
with termination in the second drive. The 
FD-502 drive uses a soldered-in 1000-ohm 
terminator. Your best bet when adding a 
second drive that has a socket for a termina- 
tor resistor is to put a 470-ohm terminator 
pack into that socket. If all you have is the 
standard 1 50-ohm terminator pack for your 
added drive, experiment with the added 
terminator present and absent to see which 
setup offers the most-reliable operation. 
You will also have to move the drive-select 
jumper on the added drive so it acts as Drive 
1. 

Open I/O Addresses in the 

•CoCo 3 
Can you suggest some good 110 
locations to use for a CoCo 3 hard- 
ware project? 

Eddie Kuns (EDDIEKUNS) 
Aurora, Illinois 

A If I'm not mistaken, locations 
$FF10 through $FF1F and $FF30 
through $FF3F in a CoCo 3 are avai lable for 
general use. This is definitely not the case 
on a CoCo 1 or 2, for those locations are 
filled with ghost images of the PIAs at 
$FF00 and $FF20. But I believe the PIAs in 
the CoCo 3 are more completely decoded, 
freeing those locations for use. You should 
verify this through experimentation. 

Apart from those locations, $FF60 
through $FF67 are generally to be consid- 
ered available. The Radio Shack X-Pad 
uses $FF60 through SFF63, but I doubt 
there are too many X-Pads currently in use. 
I don't know of any device ever made that 
uses locations $FF64 through $FF67. Stay 
away from $FF68 through $FF6F, for these 
are the standard locations for the primary 
and secondary serial ports for the CoCo. 
$FF70 through $FF7E are more or less to be 
considered available, although a lot of the 
products from Speech Systems (EARS, 
realtime clock, SC-01 voice) use those lo- 
cal ions. 

Naturally you must avoid $FF7F, for 
that location controls slot selection on the 
Multi-Pak Interface. The GIME chip is not 
documented as using locations $FF80 
through SFF8F, and you might be able to 
get away with using stuff in that area //your 
hardware card plugs directly into the CoCo 
3 system bus. However, if you plan to use a 
Multi-Pak Interface, you may find that the 
upgraded Multi-Pak will not allow you to 
address ports above $FF7F. The upgrade 



PAL chip does this to protect the GIME 

chip, and this "protection" extends down to 
$FF80 because locations $FF80 through 
$FF8F were reserved for future GIME en- 
hancements (which never appeared). There- 
fore, it would be safer to stay away from 
using those tempting 16 bytes at $FF80 
through $FF8F. 

Disk BASIC or ADOS 3? 

£fc What location do ! "peek" to de- 
^R. (ermine if ADOS or Disk BASIC is 
present in a CoCo 3? 

Terry Simmons (mrupgrade) 
Des Moines, Iowa 

A According to Art Flexser, you 
should check the contents of Memory 
Location $A282. If Disk BASIC is present, 
this location should contain $BD. If ADOS 
3 or Extended ADOS 3 is present, you 
should find $ 1 7 there. 



Upgrading the CoCo 3 

flB / have a CoCo 2 with 64K and a 
^^ CoCo 3 with I28K. Are there any 
parts inside the CoCo 2 that I can use to 
enhance my CoCo 3 ? I'd like to do a memory 
upgrade, taking the CoCo 3 to 512K. 

Erin Wilkins (AERiN) 
Salisbury, Maryland 

A There is nothing in a CoCo 2 that 
can be used to enhance a CoCo 3, 
although a few of the chips in most CoCo 2 
versions are potentially of some value as 
replacment parts for identical chips in the 
CoCo 3. This is especially true of the SALT 
chip (SC77527) that is part of the power 
supply circuit, and the Joy stick/D-to- A chip 
(SC77526). Both of these are custom chips 
that are impossible to get through normal 
sources. 

It is becoming increasingly difficult to 
find 5 1 2K upgrade boards for the CoCo 3. 
Indeed, at this time the only source I know 
for such upgrades is via classified ads (see 
those in the Delphi CoCo SIG). A deter- 
mined hacker could in theory make his own 
upgrade by constructing four sets of four- 
high piggybacked 4 1 256 chips, but such an 
undertaking would require extensive knowl- 
edge of and experience with electronics 
tinkering. 



Martin H. Goodman ,M.D.,a phy- 
sician trained in anesthesiology, is a long- 
time electronics tinkerer and outspoken 
commentator — son of the Howard Cosell 
of the CoCo world. On Delphi, Marty is the 
SIG op of the rainbow's CoCo SIG. His 
non-computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photography . 
Marty lives in San Pablo, California. 



May 1993 



Feature Program 



Get More Speed from BASIC 



by Nick Johnson 




While your Color Computer is 
running a BASIC program 
(interpreting commands), it 
repeatedly runs a built-in 
routine ( K E Y I N ), checking to see if you have 
pressed the BREAK key or the SHIFT-@ 
combination. The KEVIN routine (found at 
Location $ A 1 CB) is 161 bytes in length and 
handles tasks such as reading the keyboard 
PIA, checking keyboard debounce and 
checking for the BREAK and SHIFT keys. 
Granted, since the routine is in machine 
language, it executes almost instanta- 



neously. But since it is executed constantly 
(sometimes taking up as much as 35 percent 
of processor time) it slows down execution 
of BASIC programs a lot! 

What can be done to speed up this pro- 
cess? Well, we can force the system to 
make sure a key has been pressed before 
going to all the trouble to see which key it 
is. After all, there is no reason to check for 
BREAK or SHIFT if no key has been 
pressed. And the machine -language rou- 
tine to accomplish this little task is only 16 
bytes in length. 



KeyCheck requires Disk BASIC, and it 
works on the CoCo 3 or a CoCo 1 or 2 in the 
ail-RAM mode. Enter the program listing 
as shown, and save it to disk. Now run it, 
and the special machine-language routine 
is poked into an area of memory just past 
the end of Disk BASIC. Unless you use some 
form of Reset protection, if you press the 
Reset button, you'll have to run KeyCheck 
again. 

After the program is executed, the dis- 
play shows the percentage speed increase 
realized. This figure is an approximation 
only, and it will change if you press Reset 
and run the program again. It should be 
somewhere between 40 and 55 percent. 

I hope you enjoy this program and the 
extra speed it gives you. 



16KECB 



The Listing: KEYCHECK 

1 'THE KEYCHECK PATCH 

2 'BY NICK JOHNSON 

3 'COPYRIGHT (C) 1993 

4 'BY FALSOFT, INC. 

5 'RAINBOW MAGAZINE 

10 CLS:PRINT"WORKING. . ." 

20 POKE&HFF02.0:Z-PEEK(&HFF00) 

30 IF Z<>127 AND Z<>255 THEN PRI 

NT"RELEASE KEYS!":G0T0 20 

40 TIMER=0 

50 FOR 1=1 TO 500:NEXTI:K=TIMER 

60 POKE &HADEB.57 

70 READ A: IF A-999 THEN 90 

80 POKE &HDF60+X,A:X-X+1:GOTO 70 

90 POKE &HA1C2,223:P0KE&HA1C3,96 

100 P0KE&HDF67,Z:P0KE &HADEB.189 

110 TIMERH3 

120 FOR 1=1 TO 500:NEXTI:J-TIMER 

130 IF K-3<=J THEN PRINTNO SIGN 

IFICANT SPEED INCREASE ." :G0T0 15 



140 PRINT M SPEED INCREASED BY'TIX 

(((K/J)*100)-100)"PERCENT." 

,50 END 

160 DATA 127,255,2,182,255,0,129 

,255,38,1,57,126,161.203,999 



Nick Johnson is 17 years old and a 
senior at Crestview High School. He began 
programming using a CoCo 1 in 1982. 
After purchasing a CoCo 3, he advanced 
quickly and now programs almost con- 
stantly. He can he contacted at 5830 Reinke 
Dr., Crestview, FL 32536-89 13. Please in- 
clude an SASE when requesting a reply. 



Granite Computer Systems 

571 Center Road 

Hillsborough, NH 03244 

(603) 464 - 3860 

Still supporting the acclaimed 

GCS File Transfer Utilities 

Versions for COCO, Atari, OSK 



When You Think of Modems 
Please Think of Us 

Quality Modems by 
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Featuring High Speed Data/FAX Modems 
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Call for current pricing 

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'Thm, WP^UME 1 



Wmom m MA loon A Count** CoCo" 

We btd a -oad frxsiweXt to Lon/Ue. FaMz. and RcUnhow . Di^ptte- 
*ome c^UXtcA^m. ovea the, yeaA^; (you can't please, eveayone) 
LorwJje, h£LA. done, a gAexU. job! PtovldAsig cenVvaX AuppoiA. &ot 
the. CoCo outta^ttng aJLt the. othesi*. Radto ShacM *old the 
hastdwcLne, but ReUnbow ha* put the. heruU In the. CoCo 4>oi many 
04 a-i. 7c Lonstfm. ami Mm, mte&cn 4£a44.< 7* 4eAt£m, so** 

!bn «m sb «o &en ass** 
No one will replace Rainbow. Neither we nor others will try. Yet, 
there will be "CoCo support for the years to come" I I can say that 
firmly by the response from our members in over 40 states plus Canada. 

For those who are unaware, there is a good support base already in 

place outside of Rainbow. These will grow still larger. Look around the 

pages of this issue, choose what seems to meet your taste and subscribe. 

ffao "UPGiiADi" Bis* Sferoaiao; 

Does not support OSK, or Computers not compatible to Coco. 

That we leave to those more qualified. 
Is not hard copy though it can dump to your printer. 
Displays first rate 16 color H2 graphics, with articles. 
Does keep you informed with news from around the country. 

Including ads and recomendations of better dealers. 
Does have 0S-9 articles concerning the CoCo. We've just 

started an excellant level II tutitorial series. 
Does have Basic program technique Article & tutitorials. 
Does carry a full variety of indepth articles and reviews. 
We carry tips on where to buy printers, drives & hardware. 
This is a newsdisk, not a software disk. 
That we leave to the KI&CC library, where you can select from a variety 
of the Best available, for a filing & backup fee S3. 00 per disk. And 
we've done "All of this for eight consecutive years"! (three on disk) 

Join with those who write: "Here's my renewal, I don't want to miss 
an issue" I See our Rainbow ads Jan Mar & Apr. Respondents to this 
offer, may cancell within 60 days and recieve a refund! 

lour BAZHSQ9 Frdteaffo 6mml iaolnflMS 

1. 1 year membership in HI&CC and 

2. UPGRADE Diskmagazine subscription 
Req: 128K CC3, W/l drive, RGB, or TV 

3. HOME-PAC >> FAST-CHECK Shwre , CC3 disk 
(Reviewed, best of it's kind on CoCo) 

4. Plus a surprise Bonus disk! 
Att'a 3 filako on tow flrot Mlllavl 

$19.00 US $24 Canada $31 Foriegn Air 
Sample UPGRADE $3.00 Check or H.O. 

"MjA Iooo. A CowUmu CoCo' (non-profit) 
Terry Simons Editor/ Treasurer 
1328 48th Des Moines, IA 50311 
Include your Phone & System information 






8 May 1993 



A FOND FAREWELL 




is, 



short while ago 
I received a 
phone call from Cray 
Augsburg, As most 
good managing edi- 
tors, his request was 
short and to the point, 
"would I mind reminisc- 
ing about the Color 
Computer and how it 
impacted my life?" It 
was, in many ways, 
similar to the innumer- 
able requests I've re- 
ceived from Mr. Falk, 
(Lonnie, as I've come to know him) over the years. 

I am not a writer, but ! have, in some small way, 
"touched" every Color Computer owner's life. 

I have written purchase orders for more CoCos than 
anyone else in the world. I stopped counting them when 
it passed a million . . . Coordinated the development of 
at least five different versions of the CPU. Let's see, the 
CoCo 1 , 2, direct video out 2, TDP 1 00, CoCo 3; yep, 
that's five . . . Walked miles around CES, Comdex, NCC 
and RAINBOWfest — shopping. I had to be aware of 
what "the competition" was doing, what was new in the 
industry, and generally give everyone a hard time. 

I spent 10 years attempting to positively motivate 
Radio Shack store personnel to get excited about the 
CoCo. Every year, Radio Shack used to gather the store 
managers in regional areas to roll out the new catalog. 
The buyers would then try to "sell" their product lines to 
the store personnel. Two and a half days of intense 
"training/'sixone-hourfifteen-minutesessionseachday 
for half the month of August. It was fun. I was even 
accused of reminding people of George Carlin, but I 
deny it to this day . . . Bought the MC-10. It was originally 
going to be a "kit computer," but we could finish building 
it cheaper than just making it a kit . . . Helped turn a three- 
year product cycle into a decade product cycle. The 
original ideas were planned to last for a maximum of 
three years. But it [the CoCo] sold well and the "installed 
base" (you, the customer) became very dedicated, and 
the rest is history. 

As for some of the people I've known, I remember 
Lawrence C. Falk from when he printed THE RAINBOW 
on an LP VII. The professional relationship has always 
been at arms' length, meaning Lonnie would always ask 
for information, inside stuff, probably a holdoverfrom his 
earlier UPi training. I would talk in circles, around others, 
insinuate, reply, but never lay it out on the table. It 
worked well for THE RAINBOW'S credibility ... Jon S. 
Shirley, VP who let me do the necessary things. He got 
the ball rolling, then moved to a small young company in 
the northwest called Microsoft, as their president . . . Van 
Chandler, a free thinker about software, like negotia- 
tions with Steve Spielberg about Poltergeist, the movie 
and the game . . . Mark Siegel, an OS-9 guru; someone 
you'd always want in your corner. Mark first came to 
Radio Shack with his boss, Pat Ketchum from DataSoft. 
We bought some of their products, Mark applied, we 
hired him. He's been an invaluable resource ever since 
. . . programmers like Steve Bjork and Dale Lear . . . Ken 
Kaplan, head man of OS-9. The definitive answer on the 
digitized picture — three of Ken's employees. Why is 
another story, and I'm not a writer . . . Dale Chatham, 
designer of circuits and custom chips. I won't say much 
here 'cause he keeps a lower profile than I do . . . Kenji 
Nishihawa, built them as fast as they were selling. As a 
matter of fact, his factory became so proficient at build- 
ing CoCos with such a low defect rate that when it came 
time to start building Tandy 1000s, guess where . . . 
Steve Barry, helped smooth the way between manufac- 
turing, engineering and quality control. Steve, along with 
Steve Osborn, Bill Valentine and the rest of the techni- 
cians, engineers, designers and advertising personnel 
all helped get the product from us to you . . . Gary Pack, 
contracts were always such fun. Lawyers, you don't 
know whether to like them or shoot them. 

As for the things I have not done, I have not seen the 



development of a CoCo 4, (although I did see a mockup 
once with a floppy 3 1 /2 built-in that looked remarkably 
similar to a Tandy 1000 EX) . . , Haven't seen the 
development of a bridge CoCo ?? which runs both MS- 
DOS and OS-9 and is compatible with ROM software. 
(Don't expect to either.) 

I have not sold either of my personal CoCos. (But I did 
inherit a Tandy 1000.) 

. . . Managed to escape involvement with software for 
the Color Computer. My current position at Tandy Con- 
sumer Mail Center oversees the sale of virtually all the 
original titles offered by Radio Shack, either through the 
store or direct to customers — customers can call (800) 
321-3133. (Small commercial advertisement, sorry.) 

I have never been the Saturday morning breakfast 
speaker at a RAINBOWfest. Several times over the 
years, as the staff at the RAINBOW was planning the 
next "test," Lonnie would call and offer. Keeping the 
professional attitude, I would decline. 

I have never written an article for Hot CoCo, Color 
Computer Magazine or THE RAINBOW (this piece 
doesn't qualify as an article, does it ?). 

I have never attended the Kentucky Derby. 

Barry Thompson 
Tandy Corporation 



llfcS uilding the Rainbow" was my column in THE 

Ev RAINBOW. The name came from a fanciful 
poster I first spotted in a small shop in San Francisco. 
The series of monthly essays was my managing editor's 
report on our building process — the creation of each 
new issue. 

As in the poster, our joy was in the building. We were 
too immersed in production of the next issue to think 
much about how high or how wide THE RAINBOW 
would be. The "magic" in magic lies in not knowing the 
whole story. We just kept kept climbing, adding more 
building blocks, confident that something magic was 
happening, and taking elfin pride that those of us on the 
magazine staff were part of it all. 

We helped build the CoCo Community. It's as real as 
Walton's Mountain, as illusory as Mayberry, RFD. Inone 
way or another, we've all been there. For longerthan any 
of us had a right to expect, it was a bustling boom town. 

But even elves have sad times, just as Bambi had her 
forest fire. And, in real life, there is an end of THE 
RAINBOW. The machinery grows silent. The building 
stops. The builders disperse. What is and what was 
becomes "Once upon on a time." 

Those of you who've stuck by THE RAINBOW all the 
way understand it's OK. It's part of the natural order of 
things. And, if somewhere in the CoCo Community a 
solitary reader wipes an eye with a shirtsleeve while 
reflecting on what's gone by, it's as it should be. The 
beauty of a mountain is seen from its base, not the top. 
No one can better appreciate the peaks we had than 
those of us now on the valley floor. 

— Jim Reed 






1 



hanks to all the many won- 
derful customers who pur- 
chased our products and wrote so 
many kind letters of encouragement 
to us. And thanks to Lonnie Falk, 
| Kim Lewis, Ira Barsky and all the 
other people at THE RAINBOW for 
doing such a good job for all these 
years, especially for keeping the 
advertising costs in THE RAINBOW as reasonable as 
possible — and for being so nice to do business with. 

Stewart Newfetd 
Zebra Systems 




Progress continues, the results are now known. 
The will of the clock has finally been shown. 

The waiting is over, it happens this year. 
The end of our RAINBOW is painfully near. 

To Lonnie and Cray and ail of the crew, 
This isn 't goodbye, but thank you. 

You all pulled together, and through your good deeds, 
THE RAINBOW gave CoCo the support it needs. 

With BASIC, Assembly and OS-9 too, 
There's hardly a thing that CoCo can't do. 

Word processing, games, graphics and such, 
We even did MIDI without spending much! 

If your mailbox seems empty this upcoming June, 
I'm sure you'll agree, it happened too soon. 

Cecil Houk 
Rulaford Research 



THE RAINBOW has meant to me the sharing of 
knowledge about computing. But most of all THE 
RAINBOW has stood for friendliness and friendships 
among those with a common interest. Nearly a dozen 
years ago, I knew that THE RAINBOW and friendliness 
went hand in hand: Lonnie Falk himself telephoned totell 
me of the acceptance of my first article, and we had a 
pleasant and friendly conversation. Ever since, THE 
RAINBOW staff has been most friendly and helpful. 
Readers, through letters and telephone conversations, 
have been more than kind and have epitomized the spirit 
of friendship. 

H. Allen Curtis 
CoCo Friends Disk Magazine 



^k Q we approach the last issue of THE RAIN- 
^^CP BOW, I have feelings of both sorrow and joy. 
Sorrow that we have come to the end of this wonderful 
magazine. Joy that we can celebrate the wonderful life 
that this magazine has had. 

THE RAINBOW has brought a special focus to the 
Color Computer Community that has been truly unique. 
All of us have gained so much in technical knowledge. 
We have made so many friends. These have been 
friends which I have made from customers all over the 
world, which I have made at RAINBOWfests, which I 
have made through the forum on Delphi, and so on. 

You had a vision, Lonnie, for a very special magazine 
and community which is unique. Other magazines for 
the Color Computer have come and gone. Some of 
them, true, made their own contribution; but THE RAIN- 
BOW has always been very special and unmatched. 

You took your vision and ran with it. And you have 
always had very special people working with you. In 
recent time, you have continued the magazine when it 
was obvious that the easy way would have been to cut 
your losses and end it, 

I also want to recognize the special relationship that 
I have had with Kim Lewis. She has been a delight to 
work with and I will always consider her a dear friend. A 
true professional, so typical of the many people in your 
organization. 

I commend you for all that you have done for all of us 
in the CoCo Community. The best to you and all the 
wonderful people at THE RAINBOW and Falsoft! 

Gilman Shattuck 
Granite Computer Systems 










first, I 
bought 
THE RAINBOW 
when I hap- 
pened to see it 
on the news- 
stand at the B. 
Dalton Book- 
store in 
Schaumburg, Il- 
linois. It wasn't 
too long before I 
was making a 
special trip to 
buy it as soon as 
it hit the stores; 
soon, I was a full subscriber. 

I looked forward to the feature articles and regular 
columns by Tony DiStephano, Marty Goodman and Dr. 
ASCII, but a lot of THE RAINBOW'S appeal was in the 
mail-order ads. I think the first thing I ever bought from 
a RAIN BOW ad was Basic Unraveledby Spectral Asso- 
ciates. Here was something you'd never find in a Radio 
Shack store: a complete disassembly of the Color 
Computers BASIC ROM. 

In addition to THE RAINBOW itself, there were the 
RAINBOWfests. For many years, the Chicago 
RAINBOWfest was held about two miles from my house. 
It was really exciting to see all of the advertisers and their 
products in person at the 'tests. I'm not sure how much 
money I spent on my CoCo at RAINBOWfests, but it was 
a lot. 

ItwasTHERAINBOWthatgot Burke & Burke started. 
I started seeing ads for mail-order hard drives for about 
$1 200, and that was a lot more than I could afford. At the 
time, IBM PC hard drives were about $450. 1 bought one 
and used electronics data books to figure out how to 
hook the IBM controilerto my Color Computer. Then my 
wife, Trisha, and I saw a column by Marty Goodman in 
THE RAINBOW. Marty wrote that somebody should be 
able to figure out how to hook an IBM PC hard drive to 
the Color Computer, that there was probably a market 
for such a thing. With encouragement from RAINBOW 
editor Jim Reed, Trisha and I had circuit boards made 
up. We sold the first CoCo XT hard-disk interfaces that 
year at a RAINBOWfest in Princeton, New Jersey. 

So many people at THE RAINBOW — Lonnie Falk, 
Jim Reed, Ira Barsky, Kim Lewis, Marty Goodman, Cray 
Augsburg, Greg Law, and others — have helped us and 
given us good advice over the years. We've also had the 
opportunity to meet a lot of really nice people associated 
with THE RAINBOW, a kind of "community'' which 
wouldn't have been possible without THE RAINBOW. 

A few years ago I had the privilege of speaking at the 
RAINBOWfest CoCo Community Breakfast. In that talk, 
I described the Color Computer as the "focal point" of an 
extended family of people with different interests — the 
CoCo Community. I described how a family can splinter 
when it loses its focal point. In recent months, I've come 
to realize that THE RAINBOW is another such focal 
point; that the time of its loss is near; that we have 
reached the end of an era. Even so, I can't help but 
wonder: could the CoCo Community itself be the "gold" 
at the end of THE RAINBOW? 

Chris Burke 
Burke & Burke 



When Lonnie first announced to us that the May 
issue would be the last issue of THE RAIN- 
BOW, I didn't really think much about it. The first thing I 
did was think of my current advertisers and what their 
reactions would be. Then my thoughts seemed to wan- 
der back over the last seven years I have worked with 
advertisers from the East Coast. What a book I could 
write! I have had the great pleasure of working with many 
people who wrote programs for the CoCo, or who sold 
hardware and peripheralsforthe CoCo. I have had many 
heart-to-heart conversations with these people, not only 
about their businesses but their personal lives as well. 
Many people worked out of their homes, so I got to know 
theirchildrenandspouses.andlsawthosekidsgrowup, 
as I grew up, too. The closing of this magazine has 
surprisingly tugged at a special place in my heart. 

I laughed a lot with my advertisers. I heard many jokes 
over the telephone. In fact, John Monin at Colorware, 
used to fax them to me. I had one advertiser, Khan 
Nyguen at Selected Software who couldn't speak En- 
glish well. He used to have me look up words in THE 
RAINBOW and those were the words he would want to 



use in his ad. Chris and Joann at CRC didn't speak 
English well either, but we managed to muddle through. 
I guess we are all good communicators! I saw them get 
married, and they now have two children. 

RAINBOWfests were always busy for our staff and 
for my advertisers, but we all had some great times. I 
know I'll never forget them. I'll also never forget Jordan 
Tsvetkoff from J WT. I worked with him while he was still 
in high school, now he's in college. Glen Dahlgren, 
owner of Sundog Systems, now graduated from college 
and a full-time programmer for an entertainment soft- 
ware company. Tom DiMarco from Gimmesoft, what a 
pleasure it was to work with him. Logan Ward from The 
Computer Center, he was the heart and spirit of the 
CoCo. I got to work with him on advertising after the 
owner of The Computer Center, Greg Hall, tragically 
died in an accident. Greg's death clearly had an impact 
on me, as I usually spoke to him twice a week. I recently 
had the pleasure of speaking to Ben Burnette. He and 
Wayne Smith own Cy-Bumet-ics, an educational soft- 
ware company. Ben and Wayne, you see, are elemen- 
tary school principals in Knoxville. He said he just used 
their software and a speech synthesizer from Rich 
Parry'sSpeech Systems the other day to help a troubled 
little boy. They always traveled to RAINBOWfest to 
purchase items for their schools. We had some great 
times and laughs together. Dennis Derringer from Der- 
ringer Software, as I recall, was the very first advertiser 
I ever spoke to on the telephone. I ran into Dennis two 
years ago in Atlanta at COMDEX, a computer trade 
show we were both attending. 

My relationship with THE RAINBOW has always 
been with the people more than the computer. As many 
of you know, I'm not that knowledgeable about the 
CoCo, but you've all been so patient when explaining 
your new products to me. I've met so many people 
through this job that it's hard to name every single one. 
Thank you to all the folks who stayed with us to this point. 
I will miss you all and will always cherish our friendships. 
My sincere wish for you is continued success and 
happiness throughout your lives. 

Kim Lewis 




-aaiiiife 



will neverforget the 
feeling I had when 
I opened my post office 
box and forthe first time 
found three orders in 
the mail. I had just 
graduated from col lege, 
borrowed $1400 from 
my father, and officially 
became an entrepre- 
neur. The year was 
1982. THE RAINBOW 
had published lessthan 
four issues. I tried advertising in "hot" magazines (at the 
time) such as 80-Micro, Hot Coco and Color Computer 
News; but it wasn't until I connected with THE RAIN- 
BOW that T&D Software start to grow. 

It was very exciting, but it also took a lot of time to write 
10 good, quality programs each month. I soon hired a 
local high-school student and a programming genius, 
Roland Degraaf, to help me out. With the help of some 
great authors — Andrew Pakerski, Terry Steen and Tom 
Mix authors, just to mention a few — we published over 
2000 programs in 1 1 years for the CoCo. It is hard to 
believe that at one time I was duplicating and labeling 
thousands of cassette tapes at a shot. In 1983 cassette 
tape was the main media. 

In 1 984 I went to my first of 12 CoCo shows. I got to 
meet most of the vendors as well as the pleasant staff of 
THE RAINBOW. The show became the highlight of the 
year. I also got a chance to meet a lot of valuable CoCo 
customers at the show. I thank all of you for coming to 
visit our booth and foryour patronage. I'll never forget the 
friendships I made at these conventions. 

In 1 988 1 realized that the CoCo market was shrinking 
almost daily. I constantly worried that ! wouldn't be able 
to support my family with the CoCo much longer. In 1989 
I opened an 1800-square foot computer store: 20 per- 
cent was filled with CoCo paraphernalia, the rest with 
IBM-compatible hardware and software. T&D Software 
helped support me while Computers and More started to 
grow. It allowed me to build up the inventory in the store 
and support my family at the same time. 

I now have six employees. Even though the market is 
very competitive, the store has expanded to 2900 square 
feet and is doing well. Not only do we sell computers, but 
we service, rent, train and sell everything related to the 




May 1993 9 

IBM market. TheCoCo products will be availablethrough 
the store for at least one more year. 

I still have a fondness for the CoCo I cannot describe. 
It's kind of like your first love in life. Even though the 
simple sounds and graphics that used to entertain me 
from the CoCo were replaced with Super VGA graphics 
and stereo sound from a 486 PC, the CoCo was ahead 
of its time. The experiences I encountered with the CoCo 
were pleasant ones. I want to thank you all for your 
support. 

Tom Dykema 
T&D Subscription Software 



I couldn't let the final is- 
sue of THE RAINBOW 
go to press without a trip 
back to RAINBOWfest. I re- 
member as if it were yester- 
day, getting to the hotel after 
a long day's travel and check- 
ing in, only to hear the per- 
son on the other side of the 
counter say, "I'm sorry, but 
your rooms are not ready." 
That was the last thing we 
wanted to hear. However, we 
were so excited just to be at 
RAINBOWfest, it didn't mat- 
ter. 

Then came the exhibitors. 
They began setting up in the 
exhibit hall and the CoCo 
Community would start to 
come alive. First one at- 
tendee, then another would 

stop by the RAINBOWfest registration counter to get an 
advance look at the program and, if lucky, sneak a 
glimpse in the exhibit hall. In hindsight, it is now obvious 
what was brewing in their minds. They were planning the 
quickest route to THE RAINBOW booth or to be the first 
to purchase the latest piece of hardware or software on 
display at the Radio Shack booth! 

The long lines to get into the show would form hours 
before the official opening. The crowd couldn't wait to 
get through the doors. There would be confusion over 
which line to stand in (our signs at the registration 
counter were adequate at best). Lonnie Falk (you know, 
the person on the microphone, as he was called so many 
times) would signal Cecil Houk (Rulaford Research) for 
the National Anthem (there was a Canadian one played 
as well forthe many thousand who made the pilgrimage 
from up north), and the show doors would open. 

I remember talking to people and answering their 
questions. Some of them we were able to help, others 
had to help us. I'm still convinced we were asked trick 
questions which had no answers. I still remember some 
of the questions even we wanted answers to. They 
usually began with: "Is it true that Radio Shack will 
be . . ." or, "I heard a rumor that . . ." To this day I think 
about some of those questions. 

How about the temperature of the exhibit hall? First 
it was too cold, then too hot, then it was cold again. What 
gives? Couldn't someone have set the thermostat to fix 
this? And the aisles? I overheard hotel managers wor- 
rying about the fire marshal because we drewsuch large 
crowds. There were times we had so many attendees 
walking the aisles, people would stand shoulder to 
shoulder and still not be able to see the newest games 
Sundog Systems and others were debuting. 

And the seminars; they were packed to standing- 
room-only capacity. I rememberthe diehard people who 
would listen to the speakers from the hall because they 
couldn't get in to see them. I spoke to many people who 
left seminars early so they would be able to see part of 
the next one, only to do it again. 

I remember the very late nights in the hotel coffee 
shop. I'll bet I only got four hours of sleep a night (if that 
much). We would sit around and talk and talk and talk. 
People we didn't even know would walk by and join the 
conversation and then stay for hours. 

And the CoCo Community Breakfast. That was al- 
ways fun. There were times when you would be on the 
edge of your seat, laughing till you hurt. Other times you 
were listening closely for what was soon to be an- 
nounced or maybe you were part of the annual stng-a- 
iong-with-Lonnie. 

Oh, and CoCo Cat and the time when . . . 

Ira Barsky 



May 1993 




i am sad to hear about 
1 THE RAINBOW. It 
brings back memories of 
when computers were 
mainly for hobbyists and 
of when there was a mys- 
tique about them [com- 
puters]. Thanks to the 
CoCo, I was able to get 
my break into the com- 
puter technical field. I 
have moved on to other 
platforms; however, I will never forget what the CoCo 
and THE RAINBOW have done for me and how my 
life has been forever changed because of them. 

I can't help but feel sad today because the last 
issue of THE RAINBOW has hitthe presses. Unfortu- 
nately, technology changes, supposedly for the bet- 
ter; but in my book, the CoCo and THE RAINBOW will 
always be the best. Good-bye, RAINBOW. Long may 
you live in the hearts of all us hackers. 

Logan Ward 
Systems Management Group 



» happened in September 1 981 . I was the proud 
owner of a Radio Shack Color Computer with a 
chicklet keyboard, 4K of memory and a Chess car- 
tridge. A friend loaned me a copy of THE RAINBOW. 
It was printed on a Line Printer VII, no descenders, 
and mimeographed. It actually had programs in it that 
were written for my CoCo. The first thing I typed in was 
the big feature article on Page four, a genuine word 
processor: 

10 PRINT@416,;:LINEINPUT"(16 spaces);A$ 

20 PRINT#-2,A$ 

30CLS:GOTO10 

When I ran my very first CoCo program, I promptly 
received an SN ERROR in Line 10. After consulting 
the manual to find out what the heck an SN ERROR 
was, then spending another hour or so to correct the 
error — a missing quotation mark in Line 10 — my 
very own "word processor" was up and running. I 
typed many a letter with this new program and my 
newly acquired Line Printer VII. 

To make a long story short, I sent in the order for 
my subscription to THE RAINBOW, and I have been 
learning ever since. It has been 12 years since I 
bought my first RAINBOW and not an issue goes by 
that does not teach me something new about this 
machine of ours. Without THE RAINBOW, my CoCo 
would have found its way into a closet as soon as I'd 
grown tired of playing Chess. But thanks to Lonnie 
Falk and THE RAINBOW, I learned to use and pro- 
gram this machine. Oneofthe highlights in my life was 
the day that I actually saw one of my own programs 
published. 

It is very sad indeed to see THE RAINBOW end up 
in the land of the GOSUB without a RETURN. But my 
bookcase is adorned with about a gross of back 
issues, all containing valuable reference materials 
that I will use for years and years to come. Although 
I understand the reasons that led to the decision to 
end the publication of our magazine, I am saddened 
to see it go. It is like losing a very good friend. 

In closing, my heartfelt thanks to Lonnie Falk, THE 
RAINBOW staff, and all the contributors for bringing 
me this great magazine that not only taught me how 
to use my Color Computer but also was directly 
responsible for the acquisition of many new friends. 

THANKS, THANKS and THANKS again. 

George Quelthorst 



I bought a Radio Shack modem shortly after 
1 acquiring my new 1 6K Extended BASIC CoCo in 
the early 80s and soon became an online addict, 
which I have remained to this day. The CoCo experi- 
ence and the online experience will forever be tied 
together for me. I remember being very impressed, 
my first time on CompuServe's CoCo SIG, by the 
colorful personality and apparently exhaustive knowl- 



edge of one Marty Goodman, who seemed to be the 
ruler of the roost even though he had no official 
position there. By the time we finally met face to face 
at a RAINBOWfest, Marty and I had been friends for 
several years. One of the first exchanges we had was 
about the "cassette modem," a now-obscure home- 
made device whose central component was a Radio 
Shack speaker phone, which enabled files to be 
exchanged over the phone at 1800 baud using the 
CoCo's cassette port. It served mewelluntilthe prices 
of 1 200-baud modems dropped enough to bring them 
within reach. The online services were later of invalu- 
able help to me in the development of ADOS prod- 
ucts. CompuServe and, later, Delphi participants 
gave me all sorts of useful ideas for features, as well 
as feedback concerning compatibility and other prob- 
lems that enabled me to continue improving ADOS 
and its successors. ADOS products will continue to be 
available and supported by me into the indefinite 
future. 

Thank you, Tandy, for leaving 2K of free space in 
the Disk ROM, which practically cried out to me for 
insertion of additional goodies and so led to the 
development of ADOS. Since ADOS supported low- 
ercase, I sent an early copy to Dennis Kitsz of Green 
Mountain Micro, from whom I had recently bought a 
Lowerkitto allow my CoCo 1 to display lowercase. I 
was somewhat in awe of Dennis, having known him 
up to that point only from his regular columns in 80 
Micro, and was elated when, after months of hearing 
nothing, I gotacallfromhimoutoftheblue.Wewound 
up sharing a booth at several RAINBOWfests. 

RAINBOWfests were always a treat for me be- 
cause I got to meet so many people that I had come 
to know on Delphi or CompuServe. (Thanks, Lonnie, 
for those great Saturday night buffet parties for the 
vendors!) Fests, too, were great sources of feedback 
about my software, in addition to being places where 
i could immerse myself in the camaraderie that has 
always been an outstanding feature of the CoCo 
Community. 

Art Flexser 
SpectroSystems 



first heard that the Color Computer was coming 
13 years ago, when I was studying electrical 
engineering at the University of Louisville and was 
already involved with Tandy computers (namely the 
TRS-80 Mode! I, which I still have somewhere). A 
fellow student had picked up the rumor, from some- 
one he knew at Motorola, that Tandy was working on 
a 6809-based system that would use the 6847 video 
generator for color graphics. I still remember trying 
out the first 4K CoCo that went on display that fall; 
there wasn't that much action in the store the day I 
stopped in, so I got to sit down at the keyboard , glance 
through the Color BASIC manual (the partial one they 
shipped in the first few months of production) and was 
able to write a short BASIC program to display a color 
bar test pattern. 

I stuck with the Model I for the next few years; but 
after I helped a coworker (in a previous job) set up a 
Commodore VIC-20 as a telephone dialer, I started 
talking to Jim Reed at THE RAINBOW about doing a 
similar CoCo program. I think Lonnie still remembers 
the time I knocked on his back door, shortly after 
Falsoft moved out of his basement, because the 
phone book still showed his home address! I never 
finished the dialer program, but after I helped THE 
RAINBOW staff out of afew minor jams (such as fixing 
a 32K CoCo that didn't work reliably because the guy 
who upgraded it forgot to solder the jumper wires in 
place!) and wrote a few reviews, I joined Falsoft in late 
1983. I've been here ever since, over two years on 
THE RAINBOW itself and the rest with other Falsoft 
activities — but I've been involved with THE RAIN- 
BOW ail along. 

The interesting thing to me is how long the CoCo 
has been able to keep its hard core of devotees. 
Nearly all the other small systems that came out 
starting in 1977 — the TRS-80 Model l/IH/4, the 
Commodore PET, VIC-20, 64 and 1 28, the 8-bit Atari 
machines, the Tl 99/4 and the like — are long gone 
from the consciousness of most computer hobbyists. 
(Even the Apple II has faded into obscurity, except in 
the educational market.) The CoCo may never have 




had the best graphics in its class, the greatest expan- 
sion capability or the widest range of big-name soft- 
ware publishers behind it, but it did have a manufac- 
turer that believed in it long after the competition had 
gone on to other things, a group of after market 
suppliers that made it their bread and butler (not just 
the icing on their cake), and perhaps the most loyal 
user base a "home computer" could ever boast of. All 
these things combined to keep the CoCo viable so 
long that when most of its fans finally felt the need to 
upgrade, they could get reasonably priced systems 
with power undreamed of when they first took the 
CoCo plunge — computers that made the switch truly 
worthwhile. 

I'm still amazed that the CoCo and THE RAINBOW 
made it as far as they did, but I'm glad it happened that 
way. 

Ed Biers 



For over a decade, 
I've enjoyed using 
and supporting the Color 
Computer. Even more, 
I've enjoyed the special 
fellowship of the "CoCo 
Community," a phenom- 
enon unique in the world 
of computing. The fel- 
lowship and honesty 
among CoCo develop- 
ers, retailers and end 
users is legendary. The 
years have some very happy memories for me of 
exciting moments at RAINBOWfests, technical tri- 
umphs, and many friends I have made through my 
involvement with this machine. 

"Nothing lasts forever" is a very ancient bit of 
wisdom common to quite a number of religions and 
philosophies. We have reached the end of the 
publication of THE RAINBOW, and I will no longer be 
able share my technical musings and opinionated 
observations with you. I want to thank you al! for 
having enriched my life, by being there and providing 
me with a kind and understanding audience. I hope 
that I've been able to be of service to you during these 
years. 

I'm not going to vanish, however. CoCo users with 
technical questions can still find me on the Delphi 
CoCo SIG, where I'll continue to do my best to help 
you. We can meet there and reminisce about old 
times, with Art Flexser and others from the "good old 
days." Be well, my friends. Au revior. 

Marty Goodman 



Farewell to old 
friends. Cheryl 
and I wish to say 
good-bye to the many 
friends and acquain- 
tances we made over 
the years through 
THE RAINBOW and 
Computer Island. 
What began as a new 
hobby for me mush- 
roomed into a most 
pleasurable business for my entire family. 

Our children grew up during the years we were 
associated with the CoCo and THE RAINBOW. Each 
one of us has many happy remembrances of the 
people we met and the places we traveled to as a 
result of our business. 

We wish to thank Lonnie Falk for the many encour- 
agements he gave us to always enlarge our business, 
to travel to RAINBOWfests throughout the country, 
and to write the column"Education Notes." He main- 
tained our business for over a decade, and we will 
always be grateful for the experiences. 

Steve Blyn 
Computer Island 




May 1993 



JTOl# its high point, somewhere in the early to mid 
#^& 80s, the Color Computer had three slick, 
glossy, monthly magazines (and several non-gloss- 
ies) devoted exclusively to it. Hundreds of software 
companies, mine included, were doing a booming 
business selling products in this market. 

We all take personal pride in that success, but it's 
clear to me that without Lonnie Falk and THE RAIN- 
BOW none of it might have ever happened. 

When THE RAINBOWfirst appeared as a newslet- 
ter, there were already several other more estab- 
lished Color Computer magazines on the market. 
Unfortunately, they were generally filled with mis- 
spellings and grammatical errors and techie-oriented 
articles that only served to further the image of the 
Color Computer as a powerful toy for hobbyists and 
hackers, certainly not something an average person 
should even consider. 

Lonnie Falk's genius was in realizing, in those early 
days, that the Color Computer was a powerful tool 
that all kinds of people could use in all kinds of ways 
— if somebody would just come along and let them 
know about it. 

THE RAINBOW was the vehicle for spreading that 
awareness. Thanks in part to a journalism back- 
ground, Lonnie was able to produce a magazine that 
was clean, grammatically correct and readable; in 
other words, THE RAI NBOW was the first truly "user- 
friendly" Color Computer magazine. 

It brought relevant articles to average, non techni- 
cal users (as well as technical information forthoseso 
inclined), but it also did something else that was 
extremely important: it brought respectability to the 
Color Computer by giving it its first glossy, perfect- 
bound, professionally edited magazine. Suddenly 
more and more people were forced to take notice. 

THE RAINBOW, in both appearance and content, 
and more than any other publication or forum or 
company, was responsible for establishing the Color 
Computer as a powerful, sophisticated machine with 



capabilities that were available for anybody and ev- 
erybody. 

Other slick magazines, produced by large con- 
glomerate publishers, tried to follow on THE 
RAINBOW'S success, but they all eventually faded 
while THE RAINBOW flourished and grew. What the 
others didn't understand was that Lonnie Falk had 
brought more than just slickness and professionalism 
to the Color Computer market. He also brought enthu- 
siasm and heart. Through THE RAINBOW he con- 
sciously created a unique and loyal community of 
people (hundreds of thousands strong, spread 
throughout the United States and Canada as well as 
overseas). And it was these people who became the 
customers that made possible Cognitec's success 
and the success of many other Color Computer- 
based companies. 

As THE RAINBOW publishes its last issue, we've 
just elected a new president who campaigned on the 
promise of "putting people first." Though it only oc- 
curred to me in the course of writing this, ! doubt that 
there's any better phrase to explain THE RAINBOW'S 
longevity and success. Because, in the end, THE 
RAINBOW wasn't about hardware and software. It 
wasn't about ROM upgrades and disk drives and 
serial-to-para!le! converters and word processors and 
paint programs. It was about the people who used all 
that stuff and looked to THE RAINBOW as the hub of 
a supportive community that encouraged and as- 
sisted and nurtured them. 

Lonnie Falk not only brought respectability and 
accessibility to the Color Computer world, he also 
brought humanity. And in 1 993 we can only hope that 
Bill Clinton will carry it off as well as Lonnie Falkdid 12 
years ago. 

Howard Cohen 
Cognitec 




When Cray called to let us know the May 1 993 
edition of THE RAINBOW would be the last, 
Esther and I were saddened. For more than eight 
years, THE RAI NBOW and the Color Computer Com- 
munity played an important part in our lives. We 
attended every RAINBOWfest between mid-1983 
and 1 990. We met thousands of fantastic people. We 
traded messages with hundreds more in THE 
RAINBOW'S OS9 Online SIG on Delphi. We worked 
hard to make the complex and powerful world of OS- 
9 easier to understand. 

The creativity of Color Computer Users every- 
where and the relentless drive of the entrepreneurs 
that supported them continue to amaze us to this day. 
It was a fantastic voyage we'll never forget. THE 
RAINBOW made it possible. To everyone at Falsoft, 
we say thank you. To all our readers and friends, we 
bid a fond farewell, 

I leave you with the traditional Coast Guard good- 
bye. May you be blessed with Fair Winds and Follow- 
ing Seas! 

Dale Puckett 



The C Compiler for the CoCo has finally arrived... 

CoCo-C 

CoCo-C is a complete RSDOS based C development package for the Color Computer 
not requiring the OS-9 Operating System. CoCo-C consists of five main programs: a 
Text Editor, a C Compiler, an Assembler, and a Library Linker which are all controlled by 
the CoCo-C Command Coordinator. 



Text Editor 



A full featured screen oriented line editor for the CoCo 3 developed by Bob van der 
Poet. Powerful editing and cursor commands with auto-indent and user defined 
macros make this a great editor for writing C or assembly language programs. A less 
sophisticated version for the CoCo 2 is also available. 



C Compiler 

The CoCo-C Compiler is a full featured K&R style integer compiler specifically 
designed for RSDOS based systems. It has assembly language output, position 
independent code and can output ROM-able code if desired. Added features allow 
you to mix C, assembly language and BAgIC commands within your program! 

Assembler 

This symbolic assembler is capable of assembling files as large as available disk 
space. It supports a Motorola style syntax and outputs standard binary files ready for 
LOADM and EXEC. Options include list file output and generation of symbol table 
file. 

Library/Linker 

The Library Linker is a utility which links the CoCo-C's 90+ function library with your 
compiled binary file, creating a stand alone executable ML file. 



Command Coordinator 

The Command Coordinator is CoCo-C's main program. Its user friendly menu driven 
screen smoothly switches back and forth between the Editor, Compiler, Assembler and 
Linker. 

The CoCo-C Compiler package includes BOTH CoCo 2 and CoCo 3 versions 
of ALL the programs listed above plus MORE! Compatible w/B&B RGBDOS 

Never before has there been an offer like this for the Color Computer ! 



Requires 64K COCO 2 or 1 28K COCO 3 

Only $59.95 

Plus $4.00 shipping & handling 
See our review in Rainbow, April '93 



Send check or money order to; 

Infinitum Technology 

P.O. Box 356 

Saddle River, N.J. 07458 
914-356-7688 



The4teH$fde Color fympfrfc CItib of IIJiHotefrewte, 



Trie ^ncj Aiiriial "Last" 

CHIGASO COCOFISTI 



Saturday and Sunday, May 1st £- InA. 1993 
AttheHOUPAYINNftWN 

(A Holidowe Recreation Center) 

$45 W. River Road [A cHy block from 1-90 £ Il-$1SJ 
Bain, Illinois ill minute driving time fro* the "F«f location of the late W$) 

Ovemrte room rate ♦JtOQ (Plus \Q% tax) 

Call for reservations. I (701) 695-5000 and be sure to ask for the "Wenside" or 

"CoCoFestT rate 

See Hew Products from your Favorite 'CoCo' Vendors 



• Disto * Fama Systems * Adventure Survivors * 
• Kala Software * ColorSystems * BarSoft * SubEtha * 

* Hawksoft - SBug ■ StG Net - OS9 Underground Magazine* 
• EUROS9 - 



Seminars are befog planned, continuing in the Grand tradition of our past shows. 

A Special "Super-0S9 User $r ovp" Meeting EPomestie and International) wfll take 

place for the first time anywhere! this meeting starts at 7pm on Sat. 

Have an outrageously Good time wffb all your "CoCo" Family 

Admission: $10.00 at the door, 2-day pass only. Sorry, no 1-day passes 

Advance ticket sales: $ 8.00 + SASE or $ 8.00 + $,50 postage & handling 

Contact: : George Schneeweiss, (Treasurer) Glenside Color Computer Club 
RR#2 Box 67, Forrest, 1L 61741-9629 



For further information, general or exhibitor, contact: 

Tony Podraza, President, GCCCI Carl Boll, Vice President, GCCCI 
708-428-3576, VOiCE 312-735-6087, VOICE 

708-428-0436, BBS 312-735-3355 BBS 

We also accept National & I ntemationaJ Club Memberships 



12 May 1993 



late, there were but two fears forthe die-hard 
CoCo enthusiast: 1) that something might 
happen to Hillary, thus forcing the powers of the 
presidency upon Bill Clinton; and 2) that THE RAIN- 
BOW, the last bastion of support for our beloved 
CoCo, would cease to exist. So when I heard that the 
May issue of THE RAINBOW would be its last, I felt 
kind of personally responsible. Please let me explain. 

It was back in October of 1992; the economy 
looked so bleak that businesses were adding anti- 
freeze to their cold cash flow when I happened to 
come upon an odd-shaped bottle while walking along 
the beach. I was rubbing the dirt off the bottle when . 
. . poof. . . out came a genie who offered me one wish 
(even genies have been asked to tighten their belts). 
For a number of reasons, none of which seem even 
vaguely reasonable now, I wished that Clinton could 
win the election. After a long pause, the genie faced 
me with a sad face and said, "Oh please, master, even 
with the powers bestowed upon me, I can't grant such 
a wish. It is just too difficult; it's down right impossible. 
Please make any wish but that." 

Not having seen much new software for the CoCo, 
I wished that Falsoft would continue its publication of 
THE RAINBOW. Upon hearing that, the genie turned 
more colors than a CoCo III in HI-RES PMODE 4 and 
said, "Let me give that election another shot." 

And the rest, as they say, is history. 

George Aftamonow 



I put into words what Tandy's Color Computer 
P and THE RAINBOW have meant to me and 
thousands of others is simply an impossible task! The 
hours which have been spent contributing to THE 
RAINBOW, producing THE RAINBOW, and using 
THE RAINBOW is a unique phenomena which will 



never be fathomable to anyone who never experi- 
enced it. 

THE RAINBOW has been the primary reason for 
the longevity of the Color Computer! It's provided 
many with the opportunity to be "Real Published 
Authors" and/or "Real Computer Entrepreneurs!" THE 
RAINBOW has and continues to be a source of 
information necessary for us to fully enjoy our CoCos. 

I realize that it is no longer viable for THE RAIN- 
BOW to continue, and I wish to thank all who helped 
make it GREAT! I also want to add that the passing of 
THE RAINBOW in no way marks the passing of the 
CoCo! There are a number of organizations now 
prepared to carry on the work, on a somewhat smaller 
scale than THE RAINBOW did. Many of them will 
probably have ads in this final issue. I encourage all 
who plan to continue to enjoy the CoCo to join some 
of these groups and continue to support "the machine 
that loved THE RAINBOW." 

Rick Cooper 
Rick's Computer Enterprise 



ell, I'm writing this using a TW-80 on my 
CoCo 3 some 1 1 years after I purchased my 
first CoCo. Throughout those years the boys from 
Tennessee (Ben Burnette & Wayne Smith) have 
made many friends all because of this little machine. 
We've sold educational software through CY-BUR- 
NET-ICS in all 50 states. Although we never made 
much profit, our hope is that we helped some children. 
Our favorite times were the RAINBOWfest trips to 
Chicago and Princeton, whether we were exhibitors 
or just participants. Although we may forgetthe names, 
we'll never forget the faces and the sense of 
comaraderie all CoCo nuts seemed to have. The 
RAINBOWfest breakfasts and Lonnie's pizza parties 



and receptions will long be remembered, along with 
Lonnie forgiving my debt (my favorite suede hat) after 
I lost a bet on the Tennessee/Alabama football game. 
I don't know how many more years I will continue 
to use the CoCo. One thing for sure, the CoCo would 
not have made it through the 1980s without THE 
RAINBOW and Lonnie Falk. I mourn the passing of a 
good computer and THE RAINBOW. Lonnie, my hat's 
off to you, buddy. YOU DONE GOOD. 

Ben Burnette 
CY-BURNET-ICS 



I wish to thank all the staff at 
THE RAINBOW for a fun 
and rewarding 1 1 years of as- 
sociation with a publication for 
the Color Computer. As many 
advertisers dropped out, you 
kept up THE RAINBOW for a 
long time. You had to stop 
sometime because the CoCo 
does not have the support from 
as many users or suppliers as 
it did at the peak of its popular- 
ity. Again, thanks tor the support. 

At OWL-WARE (now usually called OWL Computer 
Services), we started as a part-time operation and have 
been a full-time computer company for more than eight 
years. Because we have advertised in THE RAINBOW 
for a continuous 1 1 years, I guess we have become the 
longest-term supporter of the CoCo. We still are and will 
be here as long as there are users out there. 

Tom Roginski 
OWL Computer Services 





Unsurpassed Entertainment Software For Your Color Computer 



CHECK OUT OUR NEWEST TITLES 




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The response to this graphics ond music programming 
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the CoCo community can create fightning fas! arcade games, 
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using up ta 256 colors! Its graphics toolkit blows away the 
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This 512K paramilitary combat ortode game features a 2- 
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Photon 

Photon is a proven winner. The critics agree thot it is one of 
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real-time music ond sound effects. Over 60 devious levels of 
excitement. Requires 12BK Coca 3. $34.95 

11 \t is the mast addicting game I've played on the CaCo 
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My recommendation: Addict yourself." 
- Louren Wiltoughby, Rainbow magazine. 



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ZenixThe incredibly popular, lightning fast, 128K stellar arcade game. $29.95 
Sinistaar 3 disks packed with graphics and eerie sound effects. 51 2K req. $34.95 
Kyum-Gai: To be Ninja Best-selling 1 28K martial arts arcade classic. $29.95 

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SoundTrax 128K/512K polyphonic digital sound sequencing system. $34.95 
SoundTrax Instrument Disk Set 6 disk sides of new instruments/effects $29.95 
Warrior King $29.95 Hall of the King I, 2, or 3 $14.95 ea. 

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P.O. Box 766 

Manassas, VA 221 11 

703/330-8989 



Visa, MasterCard, check, money order, and COD 
(USA only, please) accepted All foreign orders, must 
be sent in US currency money orders Include 32,50 
for shipping in USA and Canada, 55.00 foreign 
$3 00 extra for COD orders PA residents odd 6% 
sales tax Dealer inquries welcome Authors, we are 
looking for new software! 



May 1993 



Feature Program 



Zap: Arcade Action 
on the CoCo 3 



by Nick Bradbury 



Zap is a fast-paced arcade-style 
game for the CoCo 3. The ob- 
ject is to protect your central- 
ized space bases from destruc- 
tion by enemy fighters. You do this by 
atomizing them with your joystick-based 
zapper. 

When you run Zap, the game screen 
appears after a short pause, during which 
the CoCo 3 is creating the graphics invis- 
ibly. After this point, press the right joy- 
stick firebutton to begin play, or press L to 
change the level of difficulty. A difficulty 
level of one provides the same action as 
normal game play at Level 1 , while diffi- 
culty levels of two and three start the game 
at Level 5 and Level 1 0, respectively. 

The right joystick controls the direction 
of the zapper turret on your base. Pushing 
the joystick to the left causes the turret to 
rotate counter-clockwise; pushing it to the 
right causes the turret to rotate in a clock- 
wise fashion. Press the joystick firebutton 



to fire the zapper. 

During game play, enemy fighters ap- 
pear and attempt to destroy your base by 
hurling bombs toward the turret. These 
bombs must be zapped before they reach 
your base. 

To progress from one playing level to 
the next, you must destroy 10 enemy fight- 
ers. After Level 5, you are further chal- 
lenged by rotating space spikes. Like the 
bombs, you must zap these spikes before 
they reach your base. 

The few levels of Zap are relatively easy 
to complete. But the game becomes harder 
after each level you finish; fighters appear 
and disappear more rapidly, and their bombs 
travel faster. In later levels, spikes begin to 
appear much more often. You have only 
four space bases, and the game ends once 
all four bases have been destroyed. 

To give you a "breather" of sorts, you 
enter a target-shoot bonus round after every 
third level you complete. To earn bonus 



points, you must shoot all triangle-shaped 
craft that appear on the screen. After each 
one is zapped, the time for which the next 
one remains on the screen is reduced. Miss- 
ing one of these craft ends the bonus round 
and returns you to normal play. 
Scoring for Zap is as follows: 

enemy fighter 10 pts 
enemy bomb 2 pts 
space spike 5 pts 
bonus craft 20 pts 

In addition, points are awarded for each 
level you complete. The number of such 
points is determined by multiplying the 
level of play by 10. All points are awarded 
at the end of each level. 

Program Notes 

Because Zap uses the high-speed poke 
(POKE 65497.0 in Line 0), make sure the 
computer is returned to normal speed be- 
fore attempting any tape or disk I/O. To do 
this, simply enter POKE 65496,0. The list- 
ing is somewhat long, so I recommend that 
you save it often while entering it. Also, 
don't run the program until you have fin- 
ished entering the entire listing. 

Most of the special effects in Zap were 
created by manipulating the PALETTE com- 
mand. The stars that twinkle in the back- 
ground were created by using HSET at ran- 
dom pixel locations in H COLORS 6 and 7. 
During game play, two random numbers 
between and 63 are stored in palette 
registers 6 and 7. This simple technique is 
very effective for creating a starry back- 
ground. For a simple demonstration of this 



effect, enter the short listing below: 

CMP: ON BRK GOTO 80 

10 HSCREEN 2: HCLS 8 

20 FOR 1=1 TO 40 

30 HSET (RND(32Q),RND(192),6) 

40 HSET (RND(320).RND(192),7): N 

EXT I 

50 FOR X-l TO 10: NEXT X 

60 PALETTE 6.RNDC63): PALETTE 7. 

RNDC63) 

70 GOTO 50 

80 HSCREEN 0: CMP: WIDTH 32: END 

The fade that occurs when your base is 
destroyed is handled in much the same 
manner. The palettes used to color the base 
are decreased until they reach zero, at which 
point the base is completely black. By set- 
ting the palettes back to normal, the base 
quickly reappears. 

The listing for Zap shown here is de- 
signed for use with televisions and compos- 
ite monitors. If you use an RGB monitor 
with your CoCo 3, change lines 910 and 
1000 as follows to select appropriate RGB 
colors: 

910 DATA 0.56.2,19,5,40,63.12,15 
.63.4.46.54.0,38,7 

1000 DATA 15.50,6,18,63 



Nick Bradbury is a freelance cartoonist 
and a recent graduate of the University of 
Tennessee. He is currently employed by the 
American Red Cross, 



naiH 







'The most exciting 



Sincj 



COCO FRIENDS DISK MAGAZINE 

(CFDM) is devoted exclusively to 

those who still enjoy running under 

RS Dos. The standard system 

needed to use CFDM is CoCo 3, 

RGB monitor, at least one disk drive, 

and the RS Dos 

which came with your CoCo 3. 



CFDM is a monthly disk based publication which is produced on a "flippie" disk. When 
you "Run" the "magazine" side of CFDM, you'll be greeted with a beautiful cover 
picture by CoCo Friend James Gibbons. Pressing any key takes you to the magazine's 
colorful Main Menu. There you'll find 14 sections which are filled with entries. Sections 
included are: About CFDM; About this Issue; Active CoCo; Advertisements; CoCo 
Friends Art Gallery; Articles of the Month; Family Tree; Forum; From the Editor; Letters 
to the Editor; Potpourri; Programs of the Month; Reviews; and Question & Answers. 

Next you will enter a Section and find a number of entries written by our CoCo Friends 
from all over the world. Each issue of CFDM contains from 60 to 80 entries. Some 
sections contain documentation about the many programs and graphics found on the 
"flip-side" of CFDM. 



The "flip-side" or "program" side of CFDM is filled 
with contributions of wonderful programs and 
graphics from our many CoCo Friends! Each issue" 
has from 2 to 4 hi-res pics and from 8 to 15 never- 
before-seen programs. 






The cost of CFDM is $6 per issue or $30 for a 6 issue 

subscription. Join us now for a lot of fun! If you're like me, there's never too many 

Friends around to enjoy a great time on the CoCo. 

SEND CASH, CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



RICK'S 



COMPUTER 
ENTERPRISE 



(606} 787-5783 
CODS Add S2.50 
P.O. BOX 276 
LIBERTY, KY. 42539 



WHAT NOW??? 

What direction will the CoCo take with the close of 
the Rainbow, the cornerstone of the community? What is 
going on with the new OSK machines coming out on the 
market? Where can I find continued support for the CoCo 
and its products? If you would like answers to these questions 
and more, consider subscribing to ClpTimo the monthly 
newsletter for the CoCo and the newer OSK machines. 
Along with current news and other articles, look for product 
reviews, CoCo event information, upcoming product an- 
nouncements, and many dealer ads from such distributors 
as Cer-Comp, FARNA Systems, Hawksoft, Color Systems, 
Kola, Sundog, and more. Subscriptions for UpTime can be 
ordered in two installments of $7.50 ($9.00 Canadian, 
$11.00 Foreign). For just $7.50, you can start your sub- 
scription today and be billed for the remainder at a later 
time. NIIMS "TIMES, the bi-monthly magazine on 
disk for OS-9 Level 2 is still being offered for $34.95 per 
year. If you want more information about OS-9, this is a 
great resource. Please write for additional information 
about our other products and back issue information for 
UpTime and Nine-Times. 



JWT Enterprises, 5755 Lockwood Blvd., 
Youngstown, OH, 44512, (216) 758-7604 



14 May 1993 



mre®w 



CoCo3 



The Listing: ZAPPER 

1 'ZAP 

2 'BY NICK BRADBURY 

3 'COPYRIGHT (C) 1993 

4 "BY FALSOFT, INC. 

5 'RAINBOW MAGAZINE 

10 POKE65497.0:DIMCU5):HBUFF1.8 

S0:HBUFF2.880:HBUFF3.88:HBUFF4,8 

8:HBUFF5,318:HBUFF6,318:HBUFF7,3 

18:HBUFF8,318:HBUFF9,318:HBUFF10 

.3358 

20 HBUFF11,180:HBUFF12.180:HBUFF 

13.180:HBUFF14.206:HBUFF15.231:P 

0KE&HE6C6.33 

30 GOSUB910:DF=1 

40 BO=0 : L=0 : NH=0 : SC=0 : LV=0 : Wl=60 

: SH=0 : BM=0 : PLAY " V31 L255T255" : BD= 

1:GU-1:T1-0:T2-15:T3-11:T4-17:NS 

=3:GOSUB1370:GOSUB1360 

50 R-1:GOSUB500:GU-1:SH-0:GOSUB2 

20 :HLINE{ 39,126) -(278, 143), PRESE 

T,BF:HLINE( 112,55) -C 208,63), PRES 

ET.BF 

60 J0=JOYSTK(0):J1=JOYSTK(1):IFT 

1/5=INT(T175) THENPALETTE7,RND(6 

3) 

70 IFJ0<20THENGU-GU-1:IFGU<1THEN 

GU=4 

80 IFJ0>43THENGU-GU+1:IFGU>4THEN 

GU=1 

90 HPUT(150,88)-(168,103),4+GU,P 

SET:IFBO=1THEN100ELSEIFBUTTON(0) 

=1THENHE=1:GOSUB180ELSEHE=0:OH=O 

H-l:IFOH<0THENOH-0 

100 IFTl/2=INT(Tl/2) THENPALETTE 

6.RNDC63) 

110 PALETTE4,C(4):IFBO=1THEN720E 

LSET1=T1+1:IFT1>T2 THENT1-0:GOSU 

B330 ELSEIFT1>T3 ANDSH>0 THENHPU 

T(SX.SY)-(SX+28.SY+28}.2.PSET:SH 



120 IFHE>0THENOH-OH+1:IFOH>25THE 

NPALETTE4.6:IFOH>32THENGOSUB450 

130 IFSH>0ANDRNDCT4)-1THENGOSUB3 

70 

140 IFBM>0THENGOSUB380 

150 IFLV>4THENGOSUB620 

160 I$=INKEY$;IFI$="R"THEN1380 

170 GOTO60 

180 HC0L0R9:X1=X1(GU):X2=X2(GU): 

Y1=Y1(GU):Y2=Y2(GU):IFGU=BM THEN 

470ELSEIFGU=WZ THEN680ELSEHLINEC 

X1.YD-CX2.Y2) ,PSET:PLAY"04V17G0 

2B":HLINE(X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2), PRESET 

190 IFGU=SH THENSH=0:SC-SC+10:HP 

UT( SX , SY ) - ( SX+28 , SY+28 ) , 1 : P LAY "0 

2" : F0RI=1T05 : R=RND(63) : PALETTE1 , 

R: PALETTE15, R: PLAY"V"+STR$(31- I* 

5)+"GD":NEXT:HPUTCSX,SY)- (SX+28, 

SY+28), 2. PSET ELSERETURN 

200 PALETTE1.C(1):PALETTE15,C(15 

):NH-NH+1:IFNH/10-INT(NH/10) THE 

N220 

210 RETURN 

220 HCOLOR9:PALETTE8,0:C(8)=PC(P 

I) : IFBO-1THENBO-0:SC-SC+(10*LV) 

ELSEIF(LV+l)/4=INT(CLV+l)/4) THE 

NB0-1:TX-X2C1)-16:TY-Y2(1)-4:R-1 

:A2=15 

230 HLINE(264,15)-(300,24).PRESE 

T,BF:PALETTE4,0:PALETTE5,0:PALET 

TE10.0:PALETTE11,0:PALETTE6.0:PA 

LETTE7.0:HPRINT(32,2).SC:IFBO-1T 

HENHPRINTU4. 12). "BONUS LEVEL" E 

LSELV-LV+1:HPRINTC16.12) ."LEVEL" 

:HPRINT(21,12),LV 

240 F0RI=1T05:PLAY"01V8CE02V14CE 

O3V19CEO4V26CEO5V30CE":NEXTI:T2- 

T2-1:T3-T3-1:T4-T4-3:FORI-1TO100 

0:NEXTI:HLINE(112,96)-(204,104), 

PRESET, BF:HPUT(131, 69) -( 189.124) 




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Plus, comes complete with 
Border, Font, and Picture 
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banners, and greeting cards, 
$29.95 



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The Label Designer comes with 
picture and font collections and 
makes great labels with text and 
graphics. The program's features 
include autotmatic serial 
numbering, mail merge, and auto 
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BOWLING AWARD 



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AWARDS, CERTIFICATES, 
DIPLOMAS, LICENSES 

First Prize comes with 9 disks of clip art, 
borders, and templates to make awards, 
certificates, diplomas, and licenses for 
business, education, family, general 
purpose, humor, religion and sports. $49.95 



subLOGIC Flight Simulator II for CoCo 3 .... $20.00 

All products require 64K CoCo II, or 3, mouse or joystick, disk drive, and 
compatible printer. Please specify printer when ordering. Include $3 S&H. 

VISA/MC accepted, no COD's. Add Sales tax if NY. Mail Orders are 
preferred or leave orders on our voice mail system (718) 625-6220 box 214. 

ZEBRA SYSTEMS, INC. 

131 Joralemon St. #52 • Brooklyn, NY 11201 



,10,PSET:IFBM>0THENBM=0:HPUT(BX, 
BY)-(BX+8,BY+8),4,PSET 
250 IFLV>9THENBD=3ELSEIFLV>4THEN 
BD-2 

260 IFT2<5THENT2-5 
270 IFT3<4THENT3=4 
280 IFT4<4THENT4=4 
290 HE=0:OH=0:IFBD>3THENBD=3 
300 IFLV>6THENT2=T2+.4:T3=T3+.4 
310 GOSUB1370:GOSUB1360:Wl=Wl-6: 
IFWK2THENW1=2 

320 IFWZ>0THENWZ=0:HPUT(WX,WY}-( 
WX+13.WY+12),13,PSET:RETURN ELSE 
RETURN 

330 IFSH>0THENHPUTCSX.SY)-(SX+28 
, SY+28). 2, PSET 

340 R=RND(4) :IFR=WZ THEN340ELSEI 
FR=1THENSX=146:SY=5 ELSEIFR-2THE 
NSX=288:SY=83 ELSEI FR=3THENSX=14 
4:SY=172 ELSESX=20: SY=83 
350 SH=R:HPUT(SX,SY)-(SX+28,SY+2 
8). 1, PSET 
360 RETURN 

370 IFBM>0THENRETURKELSEBM=SH:BX 
-BX(SH):BY-BY(SH):RETURN 
380 ONBM GOTO410.420.430.440 
390 HPUT(BX,BY)-(BX+8,BY+8),4,PS 
ET:IFBM=1THENBY=BY+3*BD ELSEIFBM 
-2THENBX-BX-6*BD ELSEI FBM=3THENB 
Y=BY-4*B0 ELSEBX=BX+6*BD 
400 HPUT(BX,BY)-(BX+8.BY+8),3:RE 
TURN 

410 IFBY>62THEN450ELSE390 
420 IFBX<188THEN450ELSE390 
430 IFBY<125THEN450ELSE390 
440 IFBXM18THEN450ELSE390 
450 HE=0:OH=0:HPUT(BX,BY)-(BX+8 > 
BY+8).4.PSET:NS-NS-1:HB-1:G0SUB1 
270:BM=0:IFNS<1THEN1380 
460 RETURN 

470 SC-SC+2:IFBM=10RBM=3THENX-X1 
:Y=BY ELSEX-BX:Y=Y1 
480 HLINE(X1,Y1)-(X,Y).PSET:BM=0 
:PLAY"05V31FE01A" 
490 HPUT{BX,BY)-(BX+8,BY+8),4:HL 
I NE(X1,Y1)-(X.Y). PRESET : RETURN 
500 PALETTE13.58:HC0L0R13:R-1:HP 
RINT(14,7),"DIFFICULTY":HPRINT(2 
4,7).DF:HPRINT(9,17). "PRESS 'FIR 
E' TO START":HPRINT(5.16). "PRESS 
'D' TO CHANGE DI FFICULTY" :XZ-1 : 
ONDF GOTQ580.600.610 
510 PALETTE3,RND(63):HPUT(150.88 
)-( 168.103 ),4+R.PSET:RR=l-RR:IFR 
R-1THENR-R+1:IFR>4THENR-1 
520 TT-TT+1:IFTT>20THENTT=0 
530 IFTT/8=INT(TT/8) THENPALETTE 
7,RND(63) 

540 IFTT/3=INT(TT/3) THENPALETTE 
6,RND(63) 

550 I$=INKEY$:IFI$="D"0RBUTT0N(1 
)-lTHEN560ELSEIFBUTTON(0)-lTHENP 
ALETTE3.C(3):PALETTE13,0:RETURNE 
LSE510 

560 DF-DF+1 : IFDF>3THENDF-1 
570 ONDF GOTO580.600.610 
580 PI-0:SC-0:LV-0:W1-60:BD=1:T2 
=15:T3=11:T4=17 

590 PALETTE8.PC(PI) : I FXZ-1THENXZ 
-0:GOTO510ELSEH LI NEC 200,55) -(208 
.63). PRESET. BF:GOTO500 
600 P 1=1 : SC-0 : Wl-36 : LV-4 : T2-1 1 : T 
3=7:T4=5:BD=2:GOTO590 
610 PI=2:SC=0:W1=6: LV=9 : T2=7 . 2 : T 
3=4.4:T4=4:BD=3:GOTO590 
620 IFWZ>0THEN650ELSEIFRND(W1)>1 
THENRETURN 

630 W3=0:WZ=RND(4);IFWZ=SH 0RWZ= 
BM THEN630ELSEWX-WX(WZ):WY=WY(WZ 
) 

640 HPUTCWX.WY)-(WX+13 1 WY+12).ll 
,PSET 

650 HPUTCWX.WY)-(WX+13.WY+12).13 
:IFWZ=1THENWY=WY+3ELSEIFWZ=2THEN 
WX=WX-6ELSEIFWZ=3THENWY=WY-3ELSE 
WX-WX+6 

660 W2=1W2:HPUT(WX,WY)-(WX+13,W 
Y+12),11+W2,PSET:W3=W3+1:IFW3>16 
THENWZ=0:HPUT(WX,WY)-(WX+13.WY+1 
2),13,PSET:GOSUB450:RETURN 
670 RETURN 

680 WZ-0:IFGU-1ORGU-3THENY2-WY E 
LSEX2=WX 

690 HLINE(X1,Y1)-(X2.Y2).PSET:PL 
AY-03V31E02V15E01V5E":HLINE(X1,Y 
D-CX2.Y2), PRESET 
700 HPUT(WX.WY)-(WX+13,WY+12),13 
,PSET:SC=SC+5 
710 RETURN 



720 T1=T1+1:IFT1>T2 THENT1=0 

730 A-A+1:IFA>A2 THEN850 

740 HPUT(TX.TY)-(TX+26,TY+11),15 

.PSET 

750 IFBUTTON(0)=1THEN780ELSEBU=0 

760 ' 

770 GOTO60 

780 I FBU-1THENGOTO760ELSEHCOLOR9 

:X1=X1(GU):X2-X2(GU):Y1-Y1(GU):Y 

2-Y2(GU):HLINE(Xl.Yl)-(X2.Y2).PS 

ET:PLAY"Q4V17G02D";HLINE(X1,Y1)- 

(X2.Y2) .PRESET 

790 BU-1: IFR-GU THENPLAY"05V31EF 

AO1V10EAA":GQSUB810 

800 GOTO760 

810 R=RND(4):IFR=R1 THEN810ELSER 

1=R 

820 NZ-NZ+1:A-0:HPUT(TX.TY)-CTX+ 

28,TY+28),2,PSET:TX=X2(RM6:TY= 

Y2(R)-4:IFA2>9THENA2=A2-1ELSEIFA 

2>4THENA2=A2-.4 ELSEA2-A2-.2 

830 IFA2<1THENA2=1 

840 PLAY"02FEDA": RETURN 

850 HPUT(TX.TY)-(TX+28.TY+28) .2. 

PSET:PLAY"O2V30BAGFEDCO1V15BAGFE 

DCDCDCDC:NS-NS+1:IFNS>4THENNS=4 

860 PALETTE13.63:HC0L0R13:HPRINT 

C 12. 16), "NUMBER ZAPPED :": HPRI NT( 

25.16) „NZ:PI-PI+1 : 1 FPI>4THEN PI-0 

870 NZ=20*NZ:HPRINT(15.17),"BONU 

S":HPRINT(20,17),NZ:SC=SC+NZ:NZ= 

0:FORI=1TO2400:NEXT 

880 PALETTE13.0:HLINE(94.127)-(2 

32, 134 ), PRESET, BF:H LI NE( 120, 135) 

-( 199. 144), PRESET, BF:GOSUB220:GO 

TO60 

890 SOUND150.3 

900 GOTO900 

910 FORI=0TO15:READC(I):PALETTEI 

,0:Ni XT 

920 DATA0.32.2.33.9.25.63.11.43. 

63,7,40.36,0,38.16 

930 F0RI=1T04:READX1(I),Y1(I),X2 

(I).Y2(I):NEXT 

940 DATA 160,70.160.17.186.96,29 

6.96.160.122.160.182.134.96.28.9 

6 

950 F0RI=1T04:READBX(I).BY(I) :NE 

XT 

960 DATA 156,30,274,92.156,158,5 

0.92 

970 F0RI=1T04:READWX(I).WY(I):NE 

XT 

980 DATA 154,5,290,90,154,176.20 

,90 

990 F0RIH3T04:READPC(I):NEXT 

1000 DATA 43,35,5.18,63 

1010 HSCREEN2:P0KE&HFF9A,16:HCLS 

0:HGET(124,92)-(132,100),4:HCIRC 

LE(128,96),3,6:HPAINTC128,96),6, 

6:HGET(124,92)-(132,100).3 

1020 HCLS0:HGET(114,82)-(142.110 

).2:HCIRCLE(128.96).14.15,.4:HC0 

L0R15:HLINE{114,96)-(142,96),PSE 

T 

1030 HPAINT(128.94).1.15:HPAINT( 

128.97) .15.15 

1040 HCOLOR0:HLINE(128.97)-(128. 

102 ), PSET: HLINE< 124.97) -(126 .102 

),PSET:HLINE(132.97)-(130,102),P 

SET 

1050 FORX=120TO136STEP4:HRESET(X 

,95):NEXT:HLINE{124,93)-(132,93) 

.PRESET 

1060 HGET(114.82)-(142.110).l 

1070 HCLS0:HGET(128.96)-(141,108 

),13:D$="6R2D4U2L2R4":F0RX=128TQ 

132:HDRAW"C12S12;BM"+STR$(X)+",9 

6 ;XD$;":NEXTX:HGET( 128,96) -(141. 

108). 11 

1080 HCLS0;D$="F4H2E2G4":FORX=12 

9T0131:HDRAW"C12BM"+STR$(X)+",96 

:XD$;":NEXTX:HGET( 128.96) -(141.1 

08),12:DRAWS4" 

1090 HCLS0:D$="F3G3H3E3":HDRAW"S 

8C11BM128,96:XD$;S4":HPAINT(128, 

98 ), 11,11 :HC0L0R5:H LINE (124, 99) - 

( 132. 105), PSET, BF:HRESET( 128, 102 

):HGET(120.96)-(135.108).14 

1100 HCLS0:D$="E4F4L8":HDRAW"BM1 

28,96C10S12;XD$:S4BM136,93;XD$;" 

:HPAINT(138.90).14,10:HPAINT(140 

.92). 6. 10 

1110 HGET(127.85)-(153.96).15 

1120 HCOLOR0.0:HCLS0:FORI-1TO24: 

HSET(RND(320),RND(192),6):HSET(R 

ND(320),RND(192),7):NEXTI:D$="E2 

4F24G24H24":HLINE{ 130. 68) -(190.1 

25), PRESET, BF 



May 1993 



15 



1130 HDRAW"C10BM136,96:XD$:":HPA 

INT(16B,96).11.10 

1140 HCOLOR5:HLINE{146,80)-{146+ 

28,112), PSET,BF:HC0L0R4:HLINEC 14 

6.80)-(146+28,112),PSET.B 

1150 HCIRCLE(160,96),9,0:HPAINT( 

160,96),4,0:HGET(150,88)-{168,10 

3),9:HLINE(160,96)-(161.88),PRES 

ET.B:HGET(150.88)-C168.103).5:HP 

UT(150,88)-{168,103),9 

1160 HLINE(160.96)-{167.96).PRES 

ET:HGET(150,88)-(168 ( 103),6:HPUT 

<150,88)-(168,1B3).9 

1170 HLINEC160.96) - C 161 . 104) . PRE 

SET.B:HGET(150.88)-C168.103).7:H 

PUT(150.88)-(168.103},9 

1180 HLINEC160.96)-C153.96),PRES 

ET:HGET( 150.88) -(168, 103 ).8:HPUT 

(150.88)-(168.103),5,PSET 

1190 HGET(131,69)-(189.124),10 

1200 D$-"R3D1GZRZU1E1F1D1R1U2R1F 

1G1D1L3U1D1L4U1E2L2U1" 

1210 F0RX-18T0Z4STEP1: :HDRAW"C2S 

24BM"+STR$ ( X )+" , "+STR$ ( X - 14 )+" • X 

O$;":NEXT:HDRAW"C1Z;BM24,10:XD$; 

1220 HDRAW"S4BM44,24;E4F4L8" 

1230 HDRAW"BM64,19rF3G3U6" 

1240 HPAINTC28.14) .3,12 

1250 HCIRCLEC0,192),55,8:HPAINT( 

4.188),8.8:F0RI=1T011STEP.5:X=RN 

D(B3):Y-140+RND(52):HCIRCLE(X.Y) 

,I/2.0:NEXTI 

1260 RETURN 

1270 PLAY"02":A=C(4):B=CC5):C=C( 

10):D-C(11):FORI-1TO12 

1280 PALETTE4,A:PALETTE5.B:PALET 

TE10.C:PALETTE11,D:A-A-4:IFA<0TH 

ENA=0:PLAY"O3C" 

1290 B-B-4:IFB<0THENB-0 



1300 C-C-4:IFC<0THENC-0 

1310 D-D-4:IFD<0THEND-0 

1320 PLAY"01V"+STR$(31-I*2)+"A" 

1330 NEXTI:IFHB-0ANDBM-lTHENBM-0 

: H PUT( BX , BY ) - { BX+8 , BY+8 ) , 4 , PSET 

1340 X-131:Y-69:IFNS<1THENG0SUB1 

460ELSEGOSUB1450 

1350 HB=0:GOSUB1370:GOSUB1360:RE 

TURM 

1360 FORI-0TO5:PALETTEI,C(I):NEX 

T:F0RI-8T015:PALETTEI.C(I):NEXT: 

RETURN 

1370 HLI NEC 12. 38) -(90 .50), PRESET 

,BF:IFNS<1THENRETURN ELSEF0RI=1T 

ONS :HPUT(4+( 1*16). 38 )-(19+( 1*16) 

,50),14,PSET:NEXTI:RETURN 

1380 NS»0:HLINE(264 > 15)-(300.24) 

. PRESET, BF:HPRINT(32, 2), SC 

1390 GOSUB1370:PLAY"O1L255T255": 

POKE65496.0:FORV=31TO1STEP-2:PAL 

ETTE0,RNO(63):PLAY"V"+STR$(V)+"E 

FCA":NEXTV:POKE65497,0:PALETTE0, 



1400 IFSH>0THENHPUT(SX.SY)-(SX+2 

8,SY+28),2,PSET 

1410 IFWZ>0THENWZ-0:HPUT(WX.WY)- 

(WX+13.WY+12),13.PSET 

1420 IFBM>0THENHPUT(BX.BY)-(BX+8 

, BY+8), 4, PSET 

1430 HCOLORll:HPRINT< 15.12), "GAM 

E OVER":FORI=1TO3000:NEXT:HLINE( 

121, 95)-(133. 103), PRESET, BF 

1440 X=131:Y=69:GOSUB1450:GOTO40 

1450 HPUT(X.Y)-(X+58,Y+55).10,PS 

ET:RETURN 

1460 HLINE(X,Y)-(X+58,Y+55),PRES 

ET,BF:RETURN 

1470 'ZAP 1.0 

1480 '(01989 BY MICK BRADBURY 



/«* 




Introducing a NEW MAGAZINE for CoCo users: 



the world of 



68 



' micros 

I Tandy Color Computer, OS-9, QSK || 



Where will you go for CoCo support after this issue of "The Rainbow"? 
"the world of 68' micros" is dedicated to producing a QUALITY 
publication supporting the CoCo, Disk BASIC, and OS-9. Top writers 
and articles will be featured, including the infamous Marty Goodman, 
who will continue answering CoCo questions. The initial issue will be 
delivered in August 1993. Contents will be: 



* Repackaging the CoCo edited, several authors 

* CoCo Answers! Marty Goodman 

♦ "C" Programming (DECB & OS-9) Bill Sgambati 

• Beginners Showcase Readers Programs... any language! 

♦ OS-9/ OSK Answers! Matthew Joel Hegberg 

♦ Beginning OS-9... from the box! F.G. Swygert & Rick Ulland 

• Telecommunications Network Database/BBS News 

* Micro News New Products and News 

• Swap Shop Classifieds... SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! 



Classified ads will be .20/word, $4 minimum (subscribers get 120 
words per year free). No complete systems. Software maybe sold or 
traded... PIRATING NOT TOLERATED! Display ads are $25 1/4 , $45 

1/2, $80 full page. Subscriptions are $23/year ($30 Canada) for 8-9 

Issues (every six weeks), "micro disk" is $30/year ($42 Canada) and 

features DECB and CoCo OS-9 formats. Individual copies are $6 each. 



FARNA Systems 

904 Second Avenue 

Warner Robins, GA 31098-1029 

Phone: 912-328-7859 (9: 00- 12 :00am, 6:00-9:00pm EST) 



Tandy's Little Wonder 

the MOST COMPLETE reference ever written for the Color Computer! 



Softbound book contains: 



* History of the CoCo 
•Club and BBS Listings 

* Current Supporting Vendors 

* Peripheral Details 

* Operating System Descriptions 

* Programming Languages 

* Repairs 

* Hardware Upgrades 

* Schematics 

(reprinted with permission from Tandy Corp.) 

* Historic Memoirs 

From a few notable CoCo supporters. 

* MUCH, MUCH MORE!! 



$2522 



ONLY 

(+$2.50 S&H, $4 Canada) Will Ship 10 May 1993. 



SPECIAL: $1 off with copy of this ad! 



FARNA Systems 

904 Second Avenue 

Warner Robins, GA 31098-1029 

Phone: 912-328-7859 (9:00- 12:00am, 6:00-9:00pm EST) 




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